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Art: Section II-V

Academic Decathlon
by

Kristin Palomares

on 15 September 2012

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Transcript of Art: Section II-V

Sculpture
25 feet high
Made of Cast Bronze using the lost-wax casting technique
The mold broke at one point while casting, causing a fire ART Resource Guide El Rancho High School
2012 Section Two Section One Section Three Section Four Section Five Background St. Sophia Cathedral Overview Visual Analysis Materials & Techniques Artistic Influence & Significance Taboo Review Byzantine influence
Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom) 16th c. cathedral in Constantinople
Impressed Vladimir's emissaries
Located in Kiev (capital of Ukraine) Founded by Yaroslav I (The Wise)
11th c.
united Rus cities of Novgorod & Kiev
intended as burial place
Completed in 1037 after 20 years of work Nine-asile plan
Exterior
dramatic
13 rounded cupolas (domes) = different from Byzantine model
Symbolic: Large dome surrounded by 12 smaller domes = Christ and his 12 apostles
Interior
Piers = division of space & emphasizes verticality
13th c. : Neglect and disrepair due to Mongol invasions
17th & 18th c.: restoration
Soviet period to now: museum Hagia Sophia
Kiev
Yaroslav I
1037
cupolas
piers
museum Christ Pantocrator Central dome
Christ
mature with serious expression
thin face with full beard
gold halo = divine
in left hand = jeweled book
right hand = gesture of blessing or teaching
wears a deep blue robe with gold highlights
Abstract space
no depth
no recognizable location
field of gold = heaven
sense of stillness = blessing & judgment Hierarchical fashion that emphasizes flatness & stillness over depth & motion
Archangels surround
elaborate dress of imperial Byzantine court
hold a standard = Hagios = Holy = 3X
Below
12 apostles on drum
Gospel writers on pendentives Central Dome
Christ
Abstract Space
Archangels
Hagios
Gospel writers Mosaic
valued for durability & vivid colors
Tessarae (small pieces of stone, glass, tile) arranged in patern
Byzantine master artists traveled = mosaics thrived in Kievan Rus period
declined with the rise of fresco & tempera painting Christian pictorial arts
spread quickly
Greek artists traveled Byzantine
Hagia Sophia
Vladimir = visit by reps = selection of Eastern Orthodox Church
Similar emphasis on
abstracted space
immobile, two-demensional figures
use of gold Christ Pantocrator
"Ruler of All" or "Almighty"
son of god = judge of humanity
commonly represented image of Orthodox Church
usually located in main dome
Catholic = Christ in Majesty One of the earliest surviving depictions on a monumental scale Mosaic
Tessarae
Decline Hagia Sophia (3)
Monumental Scale
Christian pictorial arts
Christ Pantocrator
Location
Christ in Majesty Monse & Jesse & Brian David & Jacks Jacob & Mogly Isaac & Robert Christian Art & Architecture Academic Decathlon Western World Art Introduction to Art History Ancient Civilizations Greek & Roman Art Byzantine & Medieval Art Renaissance Baroque Rococo, Neoclassicism, & Romanticism Realism & Impressionism Post-Impressionsim & 19th C. Modernism & Abstraction Pop Art, Minimalism, & Photorealism Earthworks, Installations, & Performance Art History social, cultural, & economic contexts Art anthropology
history
sociology Aesthetics Art Criticism VSEVOLDO MIKHAILOVICH GARSHIN Philosophical inquiry into the nature & expression of beauty Explanation of current art events to the general public via the press Ilya Repin 1884 Oil on canvas The Nature of Art Historical Inquiry Artist
OVERVIEW Sources, Documents, & The Work of Art Historians The Development of Art History overview Artist: Ilya Repin
Born 1884 in Chuguyev
impoverished family
Studied at Imperial Academy of Arts (1860's)
Studied Abroad to Rome, Paris, and Vienna
1876: Became Academian
Professor of Historical Painting 1894 - 1907
Belonged to Peredvizhkiki
Painted Alexey Pisemksy, Leo Tolstoy,
Vladimir Stasov and Modest Mussorgsky Artistic Style
Naturalistic Painter
illusion of recession into space
Focuses on large scale scenes and portraits
Realistic Paintings of Russian working class
The Bargemen of the Volga (1870-73)
Most important painting
Depicts burlaks (men hired to haul barge up the Volga)
Message = Social inequalities Peredvizhniki (The Wanderers, The Itinerants, or The Society for Traveling Art Exhibitions)
Radical art group
Challenged academic conventions
Art: reflects Russian social conditions
Portray gentry in rural areas
Work displayed in many provincial areas leads to social change TABOO REVIEW Imperial Academy of Arts
Academian
Peredvizhniki
The Bargemen of the Volga
Burlaks Vsevolod Garshin and
the Cult in His Image consist of numberous churches
joined together on a single foundation
known by man as, trinity church .names
including ST. Basil,
basil, "fool" of Christ or Basil, Jerus
St. vasily was an eccentric man with
compassion for the poor , canonized in 1588
his body was annex to the cathedral, giving it its
name. cathedral of st. Vasily
the blessed located at moscow's city center at the public plaza, Red square
tallest building at the time of construction 1555-1560
the colors are actually not original, the domes were originally
painted in simple red, white, and gold.
nessisary restorations over time have even changed the iconic onion to a more elaborate state than originally.
unlike other buildings in moscow , Basil was made of Stone. Subject Matter: Vsevolod Garshin (1855-1888)
Popular Author
28-years-old
Suffered from mental illness
Only 22 published stories
Stories include insanity, tragedy, and social moral codes
Popular for romantic + tragic artist
soldier for Russo-Turkish War
Brother + father die = depression
Committed suicide in 1888
Audience = Russian intelligentsia admirers
Painting:
melancholy expression
burning gaze
connection of Physical Appearance + Psychological State = creative mind stalin turned Basil into a museum
and today it is still a museum. Vsevolod Garshin
Insanity + Tragedy + Social moral codes
Intelligentsia
Russo-Turkish War
A Red Flower
1888 Works Include:
A Red Flower (1887)
Four Days (1887) Visual Analysis Visual analysis Art and Architecture of the Russian Empire Monument to Peter the Great Overview Patronage
Commissioned by Catherine the Great
Installed in 1782
Inscribed "Petro Primo Catharina Secunda MDCCLXXXII" (Latin)
Translated "Catherine the Second to Peter the First, 1782"
Russian equivalent written in Cryllic Appearance Simple, somber, black jacket
Full, dark beard
Dark, disheveled, curly hair
Intense expression
Slightly watery, sad eyes Background Disorderly desk
Piles of books and papers
Utilitarian desk
Unadorned Background Style/Theme Not interested in worldly matters
Intellect > frivolous + decorative
Palette includes neutral tones
Loose, impressionistic brushstrokes
French impressionist influence
Edgar Degas (1834 - 1917) architectural influence and significance. Location
Statue looks out on the River Neva, the location of Peter the Great's first home
close to the Winter Palace and the Hermitage
In front of St. Isaacs Cathedral
Admirality Building (Northeast of Sculpture), Senate and Synod Buildings (West Side of Square)
Located in Senates Square (Previously Decembrists Square- named after the 1825 revolt) Impressionism
Edgar Degas
Neutral tones
Intense expression
Somber, black jacket
Non-secular interest Contextual
Analysis Catherine the Great
1782
Cryllic
River Neva
Senate Square
1825
The Bronze Horseman Patron: Ivan Nikolaevich Tereschenko
Wealthy entrepreneur and
art patron from Kiev Repin and Garshin met in 1880's
Garshin posed as Ivan the Terrible's
dying son in 1885 Ivan the Terrible painting:
political critique of unchecked power
Unchecked Power = corruption + insanity Exhibition in 1877
St Petersburg w/
Peredvizhniki art Visual Analysis Emphasizes progressive politics
popular in literary circles Ivan Nikolaevich Tereschenko
St Petersburg
1877
Peredvizhniki
Ivan the Terrible Equestrian Monument Horse
Trampling a Snake
Rears up on Hind Legs Peter
Calm expression
Right Hand extended towards River
Clothed in classical Attire
Wears a laurel wreath on head Pedestal
25 feet high
One and a half tons
Carved from a Red Granite Boulder (Thunder Stone)
Believed to be formed when it was struck be lightning
Found near the Gulf of Finland in 1768 I and The Village Marc Chagall Artist Bio Cast Bronze
Red Granite
Thunder Stone
One and a half tons patronage and builders Born near Vitebsk (now in Belarus)
large Hasidic Jewish pop.
1906: relocated to Sint Petersburg
1908: studied with Leon Bakst at the Zvantseva School of Drawing and Painting
1910: traveled to Paris
befriended members of avante-garde Guillaume Apollinaire and Fernand Léger
began developing own style inspired by Cubism and other modernist movements
1913: exhibited with Cubists
Bella Rosenfeld (1895-1944)
Born from a prominent Jewish family in Vitebsk
Met Chagall in 1909
1915: Chagall returned to Vitebsk to marry her
1914: critical acclaim at solo exhibition in Berlin Techniques and Materials asymetric varied shapes make up the individual pillars
8 and 6 sided shapes with various hieghts ranging from 15 to 47 1/2 meters high.
there are 9 churches all together joined by 2 gallaries, one which goes all around the perimeter of the churches.
geometric forms such as diamonds, half circles, rectangles, stars, crosses and triangles decorate the exterior.
the central structure has a simple tent roof with the iconic onion-shaped domes and a gold cross.
the central dome is gold but the surrounding domes are green, ochre, blue an red.
the domes also have great texture. Peter (4)
Horse (2) Artistic Influence and Significance st. Basil illustrated a truly unique Russian style in architecture
not based on western European models of architecture
its most immediate prototypes were most likely wooden churches in Moscow , using simple technique but elaborate decoration.
inspired by the church of the Ascension in Kolemskoe
the dome shape was inspired by the Cathedral of the Dormition in the Kremlin.
architecture remained the same until the 18Th century introduction to western architecture. Artists
French Sculptor Etienne-Maurice Falconet selected be Cathrine the Great
Became a member of the Academie des Beaux-Arts in Paris in 1754
Produced sculptures in the Rococo style
Pupil Anne-Marie Collot crafted Peter the Greats Face, using his death mask as a model
Collot became an excellent portraitist who created busts of Famous artists, philosophers, and nobility Patroned by Ivan iv
(the Terrible) constructed in commemoration of his victory
over the tartars at Kazan
each church would be named after a saint thats
feast dates accord to important battle dates.
the individual churches represented a social belief that
god had helped the muskevites.
constucted in 1561. 8 churches surround the center church. Artistic Influences
Sculpture of Roman leader Marcus Aurelius is a clear Prototype
No Armor = Peace and not war
Outstretched Hand = blessing or clemency
Horse = State
Leader on Horseback = his control over state
The horse is agitated, for it is up on hind legs, showing the difficulty of leadership Postnik and Barma were the architects(Barma could be a nick name for Postnik)
architects were indeed Russian.
They showed a Russian impulse in architecture Facade of the Northern Pavilion of the Small Heritage Postnik
saints
Ivan IV
1561 St. Isaac's Cathedral 9 churches
highest church 47 1/2 meters
geometric shapes
onion shaped domes.
conected by 2 galleries Etienne-Maurice Falconet
Academie des Beau-Arts
Anne-Marie Collot
Marcus Arelius
Outstretched hand
Armor
Horse Stance Architecture
Overview official name: Cathedral of the Protecting Veil of the mother God. basil
Moscow
red, white, gold
museum
stone
1588 Created as a refuge from Winter Palace (official residence of Romanov tsars) for Catherine II russian style
cathedral of the Dormition in Kremlin
elaborate decoration
wooden churches
18th century Contextual Analysis
Known as The Bronze Horseman
In 1883, Pushkin published a poem referring to Peter the Great as "The Bronze Horseman"
Peter achieved iconic status in Saint Petersburg
According to popular belief, the sculpture plays a protective role for the city Overview Architecture shows western influence
Located on St. Isaac's Square, Middle of St. Petersburg
Positioned Opposite of Marinsky Palace
Palace was gift from Nicholas I to daughter, Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna
Proximity of them shows closeness of church and state
Under Stalin, cathedral housed the museum of scientific atheism.
Gold dome painted gray in WWII avoiding bombs
Cathedral consecrated to ST. Isaac of Dalmatia
Hermit lived near Constantinople
Confrontations with Roman emporer Valens (r. 364-378)
Valens closed churches and was preparing army to fight Visigoths
Dalmatia prophesized if Valens went to war, he wouldn't come back, and would die by fire; CORRECT.
Isaac passed his monastery to disciple Saint DALMATIUS Taboo Review Etienne-Maurice Falconet
Academie des Beau-Arts
Anne-Marie Collot
Marcus Arelius
Outstretched hand
Armor
Horse Stance Catherine the Great
1782
Cryllic
River Neva
Senate Square
1825
The Bronze Horseman Peter (4)
Horse (2) Taboo Review Cast Bronze
Red Granite
Thunder Rock
One and a half tons Visual Analysis Stone
Marinsky Palace
Prophecy
Valens
Nicholas I Visual Analysis After 1917 Rev., he obtained position as art director for Vitebsk
1923: He and his wife left Russia for France
1941: Chagall and family flee Europe and go to New York b/c of Nazis
1944: Wife dies of untreated infection due to medicine shortage
1946: has retrospective at Museum of Modern Art
Upon his return to France (Cote d'Azur,) he has child with Virginia Haggard
1956: marries Valentina Brodsky, a Russian woman who tries to no avail to convert Chagall to Christianity
1973: returns to Russia with special invitation from the Soviet gov't
Stained-glass windows: most important artistic contribution in his late career
1985: dies at home in Saint-Paul de Vence, FR Architectural Influence and Significance Patronage Catherine II intended the Hermitage to have informal design for social activity (stems from her interest in culture of salons in France) Also used as a place to display & store her art Winter Palace Became ultimate symbol of autocratic rule & was based on Peter the Great's vision of a Westernized city Hermitage: Used by Elizabeth (predecessor to Catherine II) to describe rooms used a personal retreat Construction began in 1711-1712 and Peter employed the architect Domenico Trazzini (1670-1734) Façade = Baroque (Petrine) style
Interioir= Neoclassical or Rococo Designed by various people, including Georg Johann Mattarnovi and later, Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli Architects' Biographies Small Hermitage designed by 2 architects: Yury Velten (1730-1801) Jean-Baptiste Vallin
de la Mothe (1729-1800) Born to a family of German immigrants Studied architecture in both Germany & Russia Worked as asst. from 1752-1762 to Rastrelli on construction of Winter Palace Was a court architect Born in France, but spent active part of career in St. Petersburg working for Catherine II Trained in France, one of his 1st important works was a design for the Imperial Academy of Arts Court architect in 1766 Restrained, neoclassical style Hermitage
Winter Palace
Domenico Trazzini
Georg Johann Mattarnovi
Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli
Petrine Past: Hermitage= small palace structure adjacent to Winter Palace (Small Hermitage)
Present: Hermitage= museum housing one of the world's greatest art collections
2 pavilions (Northern & Southern) joined by hanging gardens
Southern Pavilion (Constructed 1765-66) Velten
Northern Pavilion (completed between 1767 and 1769) Vallin de la Mothe Northern Pavilion Strict symmetry (like the Winter Palace) & columns create rhythm
Compact in form
Relative Height strong sense of verticality
Vallin de la Mothe used tall windows w/ rounded arches on 1st and 2nd stories
Sic-columned portico
Corinthian columns provide visual link to Winter Palace
Sparse decoration allows structure of building to remain visible Hermitage Vs. Small Hermitage (distinction)
pavilions
Six-columned portico
1767-1769 Vallin de la Mothe wanted small building to "harmonize" w/ larger Winter Palace
Small Hermitage Winter Palace Palace of Versailles
All 3 buildings are linked by classical architecture from ancient Greece and Rome INSPIRED BY INSPIRED BY Palace of Versailles
Classical Architecture Yury Velten
Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe
Imperial Academy of Arts Overview Visual Analysis Materials & Techniques Artistic Influence & Significance Taboo Review Byzantine influence
Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom) 16th c. cathedral in Constantinople
Impressed Vladimir's emissaries
Located in Kiev (capital of Ukraine) Boris Zvorykin
1925
Based on popular Russian folk tales Nine-asile plan
Exterior
dramatic
13 rounded cupolas (domes) = different from Byzantine model
Symbolic: Large dome surrounded by 12 smaller domes = Christ and his 12 apostles
Interior
Piers = division of space & emphasizes verticality
13th c. : Neglect and disrepair due to Mongol invasions
17th & 18th c.: restoration
Soviet period to now: museum Hagia Sophia
Kiev
Yaroslav I
1037
cupolas
piers
museum Central dome
Christ
mature with serious expression
thin face with full beard
gold halo = divine
in left hand = jeweled book
right hand = gesture of blessing or teaching
wears a deep blue robe with gold highlights
Abstract space
no depth
no recognizable location
field of gold = heaven
sense of stillness = blessing & judgment Hierarchical fashion that emphasizes flatness & stillness over depth & motion
Archangels surround
elaborate dress of imperial Byzantine court
hold a standard = Hagios = Holy = 3X
Below
12 apostles on drum
Gospel writers on pendentives Central Dome
Christ
Abstract Space
Archangels
Hagios
Gospel writers Gouache, metallic inks, black ink, heightened with white over graphite
valued for durability & vivid colors
Tessarae (small pieces of stone, glass, tile) arranged in patern
Byzantine master artists traveled = mosaics thrived in Kievan Rus period
declined with the rise of fresco & tempera painting Christian pictorial arts
spread quickly
Greek artists traveled Byzantine
Hagia Sophia
Vladimir = visit by reps = selection of Eastern Orthodox Church
Similar emphasis on
abstracted space
immobile, two-demensional figures
use of gold Christ Pantocrator
"Ruler of All" or "Almighty"
son of god = judge of humanity
commonly represented image of Orthodox Church
usually located in main dome
Catholic = Christ in Majesty One of the earliest surviving depictions on a monumental scale Mosaic
Tessarae
Decline Hagia Sophia (3)
Monumental Scale
Christian pictorial arts
Christ Pantocrator
Location
Christ in Majesty Inside decorated; outside mostly gray stone
Architecture is neoclassical, plan based on Greek Cross
101.5 meter gold dome
4 Smaller domes with lanterns; also gold
Red Finnish Granite on Corinthian Pillars, window frames, lanterns, and rotunda
relief sculpture used; used on bronze doors
Doors are transition to inside
ring of angels surrounding the Rotunda L'oiseau De Feu TUTU worn in -
LE MORT DU CYGNE Overview Visual Analysis Materials & Techniques Artistic Influence & Significance Taboo Review Made For Anna Pavlova
Born in Ligovo (St. Petersburg) 1881
Career in dance offered escape from poverty
Graduated from Imperial Ballet Founded by Yaroslav I (The Wise)
11th c.
united Rus cities of Novgorod & Kiev
intended as burial place
Completed in 1037 after 20 years of work Nine-asile plan
Exterior
dramatic
13 rounded cupolas (domes) = different from Byzantine model
Symbolic: Large dome surrounded by 12 smaller domes = Christ and his 12 apostles
Interior
Piers = division of space & emphasizes verticality
13th c. : Neglect and disrepair due to Mongol invasions
17th & 18th c.: restoration
Soviet period to now: museum Hagia Sophia
Kiev
Yaroslav I
1037
cupolas
piers
museum Central dome
Christ
mature with serious expression
thin face with full beard
gold halo = divine
in left hand = jeweled book
right hand = gesture of blessing or teaching
wears a deep blue robe with gold highlights
Abstract space
no depth
no recognizable location
field of gold = heaven
sense of stillness = blessing & judgment Hierarchical fashion that emphasizes flatness & stillness over depth & motion
Archangels surround
elaborate dress of imperial Byzantine court
hold a standard = Hagios = Holy = 3X
Below
12 apostles on drum
Gospel writers on pendentives Central Dome
Christ
Abstract Space
Archangels
Hagios
Gospel writers Mosaic
valued for durability & vivid colors
Tessarae (small pieces of stone, glass, tile) arranged in patern
Byzantine master artists traveled = mosaics thrived in Kievan Rus period
declined with the rise of fresco & tempera painting Christian pictorial arts
spread quickly
Greek artists traveled Byzantine
Hagia Sophia
Vladimir = visit by reps = selection of Eastern Orthodox Church
Similar emphasis on
abstracted space
immobile, two-demensional figures
use of gold Christ Pantocrator
"Ruler of All" or "Almighty"
son of god = judge of humanity
commonly represented image of Orthodox Church
usually located in main dome
Catholic = Christ in Majesty One of the earliest surviving depictions on a monumental scale Mosaic
Tessarae
Decline Hagia Sophia (3)
Monumental Scale
Christian pictorial arts
Christ Pantocrator
Location
Christ in Majesty THE MOTHERLAND CALLS M
O
T
H
E
R
L
A
N
D

C
A
L
L
S [The Dying Swan] Tsarevich Ivan On The Horse With The Golden Mane Of Tsar Afron I
R
A
K
L
I

T
O
I
D
Z
E 1941 Gouche and colored pencil on gelatin silver print Christ in Glory Overview Visual Analysis Materials and Techniques Artstic influence and significance 101.5 meters
Red Finnish Granite
neoclassical
corinthian
greek cross Patronage Architectural Influences and significance Initiated by Alexander I ( r.1801-25)
Most of work done under Nicholas I (r. 1825-55)
Finished under Alexander II (r. 1855-81)
Peter the great born on feast day of Saint Isaac
Peter and successors crafted moscow to look to west for inspiration
showing progression
Style represents enlightenment, and relation to church
Auguste de Montferrand (1768-1858) named architect by contest
Served in Bonaparte's army
formal training limited, but also built monument to Alexander I (patron)
Isaac's Cathedral was a lifelong project
Interior plans not done until 1842
Died 1858 Alex.Nick.Alex
St. Isaac's feast day
Montferrand
1842 Neoclassicism popular in 18th & 19th century France
tastes shift to antiquity
symmetry and austere promotes ideas of reason and order
Montferrand Inspired by Antonio Palladios' 16th century Villa Rotunda; greek cross plan with large dome
Similar but Isaac's was bigger
Architecture away from traditional Russian; westward Neoclassicism
Antonio Palladio
Westward 18th C. Academic Discipline Pliny the Elder Roman historian
"Natural History" Giorgio Vasari
"The Lives of the Artists"
Bios that explored the changing roles of the artist during the Renaissance Enlightenment
Johan Joachim Winckelmann
German scholar
Focused on style in relation to context Contemporary... individual stories w/ bias
broader views as a result of gender & multicultural emphasis
less emphasis on the geniuses on more on "visual culture" formal analysis contextual analysis visual qualities = intrinsic meaning
requires skills in observation & description
focus on object itself outside of the work (both when it was created & when it was later consumed)
Focuses on cultural, social, religious, & economic context
Patronage, access, cost, subject matter, etc. Step One Close examination of work direct is best
secondary is reproductions or descriptions
look at associated studies (past & present) Step Two investigate context of work Art history often uses... chronological development
compartive study
cultural & historical context Old Stone Age / Upper Paleothic Period Chauvet Cave southeastern France
discovered in 1994
from 30,000 B.C.E.
red ochre and black charcoal w/ limited yellow
Animals = horses, rhinos, lions, buffalos, & mammoths France & Spain 15,ooo-10,000 B.C.E.
Lascaux & Altamira
Animals + outlines of hands Early scholarship = spontaneous scribbling
Later = skilled artists
Function unclear; maybe hunting ceremonies or other rituals Venus (or Woman) of Willendorf) example of stone female figure with exaggerated bellies, breasts, & pubic areas
4 1/8 inch high
different in undefined facial features, arms barely visible, & feet missing
possible fertility figure Middle Stone Age / Mesolithic Period Warmer weather... people moved outside & started using rock shelters
7000 B.C.E. - 4000 B.C.E.
similar = animals
different = human figure alone & in groups, emphasis on scenes New Stone Age / Neolithic Period rings & rows of large stones
17 ft. high & 50 tons = "great stones" or "megalithic"
Western Europe
4000 B.C.E. Stonehenge Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire, England
Built in phases around 2100 B.C.E.
Sarsen (sandstone) & "bluestones" (indigenous rocks)
outer ring = post & lintel construction (2 upright pieces topped w/ crosspiece)
next ring = bluestones that encircle horseshoe-shaped row of 5 lintel-topped sarsen stones
northeast = vertical "heel-stone" = marker sun during midsummer solstice Ancient Mesopotamian Located b/w Tigris & Euphrates Rivers
Developed writing & arts (parallel w/ Egypt)
Fewer examples
Lacked natural barriers = vulnerable
perishable materials Late 16th - Mid 18th C Different from Renaissance...
less static, more movement/
political: conflicts bw empires
appealed to emotions
influenced by the Counter Reformation
dramatic, ornamentation Politics
divine right
Maria Theresa of Austria, Peter the Great & Catherine the Great of Russia, Louis XIV of France
wealth inequality led to Enlightenment (Rousseau)
patrons = wealthy chiaroscuro Caravaggio
caravaggesque
naturalism
Gentileschi
daughter of painter
self-portraits, Old Testament women
Bernini
son of sculptor
child prodigy -> Pope recognized @ 17
sculptor, architect, painter, draftsman, theater
Ecstasy of Saint Teresa @ Cornaro Chapel
stained-glass window -> gold lighting
pushed use of marble to new limits -> naturalistic Peter Paul Rubens
Flanders
Rembrandt
Dutch
painter, printmaker, draftsmen
The Night Watch = Sortie of Captain Banning Cocq's Company of the Civic Guard
people paid to be in = broke rules by grouping in a way to show more importance to some
died in poverty
self-portraits = great
peak
Versailles
Salon
annual exhibition of art
selected/supported by Louis XIV
Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture
imposed aesthetic standards
Philip IV
Diego Velazquez
contemporary of Bernini
built figures from patches of color
influenced impressionism Italy North France Spain
Watteau
fete galante
nobility in elegant contemporary dress in the countryside
Boucher
fave of Madame Pompadour, mistress of Louis XV
myth transformed into courtly gallantry & nudes
Fragonard
promoted by Madame Pompadour Different from Baroque
celebration of romance and grand life
used gold & pastel colors Artists Rococo Neoclassicism Historical Context = French Revolution, Enlightenment
Revival of classical Greece & Rome
Artists
Jacques Louis David
Oath of the Horatii
master of ceremonies for rallies during FR
dedicated painter to Napoleon = propaganda
Characteristics
sharp outlines, unemotional figures, careful geometric composition Romanticism Characteristics
emotional like Baroque
highly imaginative, dreamlike
feeling over reason
natural setting
Artists
Delacroix
exotic themes & foreign settings
violence involving animals
historical subject matter
William Blake
Gericault Historical Context
Fall of Roman Empire = waring kingdoms except in Byzantium
Characteristics
Large mosaic murals
Christian content
Examples
Ravenna
present-day Italy
Hagia Sophia
Constantinople Historical Context
civil strife = Church preservation of art
population = illeterate
language = Latin = monasteries copied books chained to tables
Examples
Book of Kells
Coronation Gospels Nomadic Germanic peoples
metalwork
abstract, decorative, geometric
small-scale portable jewelry or ornaments
Vikings in Scandinavia
wood
designs on ships
merged with Anglo-Saxon England and Celtic Ireland = Hiberno-Saxon Early Medieval Church architecture
took century to complete
Roman arch = Romanesque
stone vaulted to replace flammable wooden roofs
barrel vault = tunnel of arches
window & door openings small
Example
Sain-Sernin in Toulouse, France Gothic
12-6 C.
pointed arches
ribbed vaults = framework of thin stone ribs/arches built into ceiling
flying buttresses = additional bracing material & arches on the exterior
allowed for larger windows = stained glass
Chartres Cathedral in France
arches direct attention heavenward Byzantine Medieval Late Medieval reaction to Neoclassicism & Romanticism
painting must illustrate all features of ordinary life
Artists
Gustave Courbet
The Stonebreakers
outraged people with painting of ordinary workmen at the Salon
political context = revolutions of 1848
Honore Daumier
Millet Realism Uspet with rules of Salons
Manet
1st but refused to consider himself as one
juxtaposed bright, contrasting colors
Le Dejeuner sur L'herbe (Luncheon on the Grass)
Salon des Refuses = exhibit
ridiculed bc it went against the norm of only having classical figures in the nude
had a classical subject matter but it showed clothed men with a nude woman Impressionism Monet
name source = Impression Sunrise = exhibit to ridicule Salons
urged artists to work outdoors = advances in portability of medium
put colors directly on cavas with rapid strokes to capture changing light
new studies @ time = shadows aren't gray but reflect the complementary color of the object casting them
Other artists
Pissaro
Sisley Cezane dissatisfied with lack of solid form in Impressionsim
redifined art in terms of form
structured as a series of planes w/ a clear foreground, middle ground, and background
objects can be reduced to simplest forms = cubes, spheres, cones, etc.
let to Cubism Seurat emphasis on scientific rules of color
small dots of complementary colors that blended = optical mixing Van Gogh Dutch
contrasting color & direct application of paint = goal of capturing light in southern France
vigorous brushwork = intense response
colors should be intensified to portray human emotions
Night Cafe
jarring yellows, greens, and reds = considered place of vice Gauguin successful stockbroker
left wife & family in 40s to become an artist
worked with van Gogh
Tahiti = searched for intense color & "unschooled" style
painted lush landscape, native people, through lens of colonialism Pre-Raphaelites
England
dissatisfied with the effects of Industrial Revolution
attempted to return to simpler forms of pre-Renaissance art
blended Romantic, archaic, & moralistic elements
Art Nouveau
19-20th C.
style of decoration, architecture, & design characterized by the depiction of leaves & flowers in flowing, sinous lines Camera
questioned need to capture ordinary life
chemically based paints & paint tube
paint outdoors
global exploration & colonialism
Edgar Degas
snapshot style of photography w/ Japanese-like perspective 42 1/2 x30 in
smaller than Christ Pantocrator
inspiring worshipers to reflect on aspect of God iconography icon come from the greak Eikwv (
eikin"
wordlessly educate the illiterate
remains popular in Russia after Vladimir's
conversion, importing Byzantine artist,
expect in the 600 year-old tradition
on the iconostasis "icon screen", a wall separating the clerical sanctuary and the congregational gathering(nave), an important design element for churches.
5 groups of iconography: Christ, Christ.s Mother Mary, Feast days and festivals, angels, and saints
iconographers we revealing an already existing image.
specific image in Specific way.
draw viewers out of the real world and into divine concept of Church
painted on wood with Tempora paint, paint with an egg yolk base.
topped with an oil-based varnish
used Lapis Luzuli,blue, for the almond shaped intersection of 2 circles , Mandorola.
tempora is expensive, dries quickly, and difficult to match but has great longevity in novgorad, where the mongols didn't hit, mostly because of surrounding marshland.
has the novgorad distinctive syle
solid sparce image,simple, long lines, large with more detailed shapes: flat , geometric patterns and liberal use of brown red,and orange-yellow (ochre) chris wears an Elaborate folder robe
hand up in 2 finger gesture of blessing
an open book, diplaying god as the teacher
words traslate to" come to me and be judged justly"
golden halo with a Greak cross surounding his head
strong graphic colors and geometric shapes surround the figure
christ sits on a thrown, underneath him is a small cushion
innacurate shading to depict folds
angels fill the green oval, surounding him
the animal on the upper left : Mathew
upper right: John the Evangelist
winged ox on lower right: Luke
winged lion lower right: gospel witter Mark compared to Chris Pantocrator;
flatter face
proportions of body, particularly the neck are elongated
emphasis on Divine non human nature of Christ by angels, symbols and background.
lines and colors lead the viewer to Christ 1470-99 42and1/2 by 30
"come to me and be judged
justly"
luke, Mark , John, and Mattew Novgorod
flatter face, and elongated neck
tempora
wood
teach the illiterate
iconostasis
nave
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