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Transcript of Greek Architecture
Temples & Orders
Temples are the main places used to worship gods
Different gods that were worshiped had different holidays in which people visited the temples to sacrifice animals
Temples were also used to symbolize the great culture and power of the society
Were built as focal points as they were built on the highest ground
The Greeks focused on making what they built to look absolutely perfect: this was called entasis
Who were the temples built for?
Temples and their values
They were built for the Greek gods
12 Major greek gods: Zeus(sky), Artemis(hunt), Hera(family), Aphrodite(love), Apollo(sun), Ares(war), Poseidon(sea), Hades(death), Dionysus(wine), Hephaestus(smithing), Hermes(travel), Demeter(harvest)
Olympic games were created to praise Zeus
Ceremonies are performed at altars
Objects such as food and precious objects were offered when people visited the temples
Animals were also sacrificed at times
People also made paintings of gods
Statue of Zeus at Olympia
Great statue of Zeus in Olympia. One of the seven wonders of the ancient world.
Temple of Poseidon at Sounion, it was constructed in approximately 440 BC
Temple of Apollo, built at Delphi.
Temple of Zeus at Cyrene, dating back to 5th century BC, destroyed in the jewish rebellion in 115 AD
Paestum temples - temple of Hera, the oldest, was built around 550 BC by greek colonists
Temple of Hephaestus, best preserved greek temple in the world, built in 5th century BC, built northwest of Acropolis
Valley of Temples, seven greek temples
Temple of Apollo at Delphi
Where were the temples built?
Temple of Poseidon at Sounion
SIGNIFICANT STRUCTURE EXAMPLES
Example: The Parthenon
The Parthenon is the ultimate refinement of a Doric temple
The architects were Iktinos and Kallikrates
The temple’s main function was to hold the statue of Athena that was made by Pheidias out of gold and ivory
The Parthenon construction cost the Athenian treasury 469 silver talents
That's bout 9 million dollars today!
What are orders?
most of the temples were built aligned with the stars
they were built on elevated land
they believed the top of hills were holy
temple of Artemis:Atatürk Mh., 35920 Selçuk/İzmir, Turkey
temple of Olympian Zeus: Athens, Greece
temple of Aphrodite Urania:located north-west of the Ancient Agora of Athens
An order is a certain design for the pillars of a temple commonly known as a column
There are 3 major orders
Doric: It was the first design, and very simple design
Ionic: Used for smaller buildings and is easily recognized by its 2 scrolls around the column
Corinthian: Similar base design as the Ionic, know for it elegant and sophisticated capital.
How were temples built?
Most temples might have the same blueprint, but each has their own unique look
All temples blueprint are based on size, there was the distyle with 2 columns at the front, and hexastyle with 6 columns, etc
One of the way temples make themselves unique then other is through the orders
Each order changes the temple design completely, because each has their own design for an ideal roof
Finally, to make the temple look even more beautiful, is through the usage of carvings at the frieze and metope
Burned by Persians while still under construction 480 BC
The greek temple is one of the best preserved temples of greek architecture
The whole building has dimensions of 31m x 69m, specifically 8 by 17 columns
Its massive foundations were made of limestone, and the columns were made of Pentelic marble, a material that was utilized for the first time
It contains two rooms with solid ashlar walls
The larger room was called the naos and had an inner supportive colonnade which contained the giant statue of the goddess Athena
The back room sheltered Athena’s treasure and four columns of the Ionic order supported its roof
The cella was unusually large in order to hold the size of the Athena statue
The front and back porch were confined to a much smaller size
A line of six Doric columns supported the front and back porch, while a colonnade of 23 smaller Doric columns surrounded the statue in a two-storied arrangement
The frieze consists of marble panels which portray the Athenian knights, gods vs other mythical figures contests, heroic battles, and the siege of Troy
These panels were removed in 1801-1803
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"The Parthenon." Parthenon. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2015.
"Touropia." Touropia. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Mar. 2015.
"Greek Architecture: Doric, Ionic, or Corinthian?" - For Dummies. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2015.
"Greek Architecture." Ancient History Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Mar. 2015.
Stevenson, Neil, and Neil Stevenson. Architecture Explained. New York: DK Pub., 2007. Print.
"Ancient Greek to Modern Architecture with Greek Influence." Greek Gateway. 7 Mar. 2015. Web. 10 Mar. 2015. <http://www.greekgateway.com/news/ancient-greek-to-modern-architecture-with-greek-influence>.
Encyclopedia of Discovery: Science and History. San Francisco: Fog City, 2002. Print.
1. Should Society still use architectural designs that were made thousands of year ago?
2. Who should we credit for the design of the columns, the greeks who made it, or the Mycenaeans?
3. Do you think that the Greeks should have built these temples to be destroyed later by invaders?
What influenced the Greeks?
The Mycenaean, the predecessors of the Ancient Greeks laid out the foundation for the Ancient Greeks to start, including basic columns
They made pottery, stone and marble figures, and stone walls with elaborate carvings
The Egyptians, during the archaic period (700-480 B.C.) had influences on the greeks with the making of stone and bronze statues
What did the greeks influence today?
The White House follows an example of a ionic order.
The Oslo Trading Building in Norway
Many old style small houses in the United States have front porches resembling the Greek temples columns
Several balconies on modern buildings have an example of doric orders
Nowadays, classic greek columns are implemented with modern style architecture to form interesting hybrids
What did the Greeks influence later?
The Ancient Romans took the designs of previous powers and adapted them to their own purposes, including the designs of the Ancient Greek columns
The Ancient Romans used mostly Ionic or Corinthian type orders for their columns
The ancient greeks had homes that were made of timber and sun-dried mud bricks.
Few of these remain
Homes did not have particular design that each house was based on
1-2 floors were usually the amount of floors in a home
starting from the 5th Century B.C., the ancient greeks started using stone for their homes
these homes have plastered exteriors and the interiors contain frescoes
municipal planning as lax and as a result, cities became mazes of streets and alleys
People could collect water in most public buildings
The Average Home and Minor Public Structures