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History of Western Music

Outline of events and people that shaped the development of Western Music.


on 20 May 2014

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Transcript of History of Western Music

4000 - 200 bce
Egypt : 3000-31 bce
Mesopotamia : 1795-539 bce
Babylonians, Assyrians
China : 2000bce ...
India : 3000-500 bce
Persia : 630bce - 600 ce
Isreal (the Jews) : 1800bce...

The Hellenic Era : 700 bce - 450 ce
Greece & Rome
Pythagoras 500 bce
Plato 300 bce
Delphic hymns 200 bce
Apollonian vs. Dionysian
The great unification:
Roman law, Germanic lifestyle & the Christian faith.

Frankish Society:

Peasants - the people that work

Nobles - the people that fight

Clerics - the people that pray

“Charlemagne brought cantors from the Papal chapel in Rome to instruct his clerics in the authentic liturgy. A program of propaganda spread the idea that the chant used in Rome came directly from Gregory the Great, who had died two centuries earlier and was universally venerated. Pictures were made to depict the dove of the Holy Spirit perched on Gregory's shoulder, singing God's authentic form of chant into his ear. This gave rise to calling the music "Gregorian chant”. A more accurate term is plainsong or plainchant.”


The Micrologus – second most read treatise after Boethius

Solfeggio or Solmazation = ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la, si
Guido D’Arezzo
(c. 992-1022)
The Scholastics...325-1200ce
Ambrisian Hymnody
Gregorian Chant
When the world was whole
Mass |mas| |ˈmøs| |mas| noun

the Christian Eucharist or Holy Communion, esp. in the Roman Catholic Church : we went to Mass | the Latin Mass., a musical setting of parts of the liturgy used in the Mass.

ORIGIN Old English measse, from ecclesiastical Latin missa, from Latin miss- dismissed, from mittere, perhaps from the last words of the service, Ite, missa est - Go, it is the dismissal.
The High Middle Ages - 1100-1450
The Church - The Gothic Era
Gothic Architecture
Plainchant evolving toward polyphony
The Crusades

The Court - The Feudal Era (9th-15th c.)
The scholastic spirit & education
The Age of Chivalry
Romantic/Poetic spirit flourishes*
The Troubadours/Trouvére
The Marianic Cult

Romanesque Architecture
Beothius c. 600

Pope Gregory "The Great" c. 600

The Venerable Bede c. 700
Ambrosian plainchant
Gregorian plainchant


Kyrie eléison - "Lord have mercy..."

Gloria - "Glory to God in the highest..."

Credo - "I believe in one God..."
The Nicene Creed
The Apostolic Creed

Sanctus - "Holy, Holy, Holy"

Benedictus - "Blessed is He..."

Agnus Dei - "Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world..."
monophonic (predominantly)
medieval modes (dorian, phrygian, lydian, mixolydian)
Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179)
Natural history & medicine
composer of plainchant melodies
The Crusades & the influence of Islam…
1095 - 1270
Troubadours, Trouvére & Minnesänger

The jongleur : itinerate musicians & minstrals
English, French, German, Italian, Spanish
Music of lyric poets from 12th - 14th c.
Pre-renaissance - Boccaccio, Dante, Chaucer
The Black Death : 1347-1350 = 20 million deaths
1/3 of European population

Courtly Performances

Principal genres:
canso - courtly love song
dansa - mock-popular song based on dance
descort - discordant song in verse
escondig - lover's apology
gap - a challenge
pastorela - amorous encounter btw knight & shepherdess
planh - a lament
sirventes - a satirical poem using borrowed melody

(extracted w/ permission The Grove Dictionary of Music; Ed. S. Sadie)
Knight Templar's Chant
Bernart de Ventadorn:
"Ben M'an perdut"
Guillaume IX d'Aquitaine (1071-1127)
"Farai un vers"
Cantiga 10 "Rosa das Rosas"
Walther von der Vogelweide (1170-1230)
"Unter der Linden"
ORGANUM - Early Polyphony - 12th c.

The School of Notre Dame (Paris)
Magnus Liber Organi (The Big Book of Organum)

Léonin & Pérotin
Master Léonin - revises book 1163-82
Pérotin the Great - revises book 1190-1225

Predecessors to ORGANUM

Tropes - adding music/text onto old chant
Sequences - form: a-bb-cc-dd, etc.
Liturgical Dramas
ORGANUM in development

Parallel organum:
2 lines strict intervals 4ths/5ths
Florid or Melismatic organum:
tenor (old) + duplum
Free organum:
parallel, oblique & contrary mvt.
Early Music History

Parallel Organum 1100
Florid Organum (duplum)
Free & Oblique Organum
Aesthetic parallels with Romanesque architecture

Big Rock Candy Mtn
AKA - The Land of Cockaine...
Thematic material of CARMINA BURANA

Themes of the poems:
55 songs of morals & mockery
131 love songs
40 drinking & gaming songs

Of particular outstanding interest:
critiques of greed in the church (indulgences)
lamentations regarding human fate
pastourelles - rape/seduction of shepherdesses by knights
erotic elegies - overt eroticism and sexualtiy
The Land of Cockaigne - mythical utopia where idleness and gluttony abound
translation: "songs from Beurn"

Manuscript of 254 poems/dramtic texts

Written in 11th, 12th & 13th c.

Written in : Medieval Latin, Middle High German, Old French and "macaronic" (mixed Latin/German/French vernacular)

Rediscovered : 1803 in the Benedictine monastery of Benediktbeurern, Bavaria
Who wrote the CARMINA BURANA?

Written by : students and clergy of the 11th-13th c.
- students/clergy who became famous for satirizing and lampooning and protesting against the church, esp. growing contradictions in the teachings and practices, including the failures of the Crusades…

Carl Orff (1895-1982)
20th c. German composer
Best known for his cantata - CARMINA BURANA - composed in 1935
Influential, innovative music educator

Full LATIN title:
Carmina Burana: Cantiones profanæ cantoribus et choris cantandæ comitantibus instrumentis atque imaginibus magicis
Triptych form:
25 movements
Overture - O Fortuna!
I - Primo vers (In Spring)
- Auf dem anger (In the Meadow)
II - In Taberna (In the Tavern)
III - Cour d'amours (Court of Love)
- Blanziflor et Helena
100 piece orchestra
200 voice SATB choir
50 voice children's choir
Solo voice: Soprano, Tenor, Baritone
The 14th Century
1300 -1450
- the dawn of the Renaissance -
The Age of HUMANISM begins…

Francesco Petrarch
Born – at dawn – July 20, 1304
Died July 19, 1374

“Letter to Posterity” autobiography

Traveled the known world

Keen observer of humanity

Profound sense of self in time/space

Personal suffering overcome through optimism.

SECULARIZATION in heart & mind

Black Plague

100 Years War - 1337-1453

The Great Schism (church corruption)
Avignon Papacy (1305-78)
The Great Schism (1378-1415)

Suspended between FAITH & REASON

LIFE is happening …here & now!
Dante Alighieri

Giovanni Boccaccio

Geoffrey Chaucer
The Decameron
The Canterbury Tales
La divina comedia
...but what is happening in music during this time?
Ma fin est mon commencement
Guillaume de Machaut
(c. 1300-1377)
Why is Machaut the BRIDGE to the Reanaissance???

The first undisputed GENIUS of Western music

Progenitor of early counterpoint and innovative master of new polyphonice style : ARS NOVA

Masterpiece: Messe de Nostre Dame

Prolific output:

Liturgical works for the church

Songs and poetry for the court

Extraordinary preservation…

New use of rhythm & isometric patterns
Douce dame jolie
Messe de Nostre Dame
"Agnus Dei"
The Burgundian Bridge
Franco-Flemish, Netherlands, Dutch, Low Lands schools
The Hundred Years War (1336-1453)

Mostly French - houses: Valois & Plantagenet
Then came the English...
The Great Schism (1378-1417) &...
the Dominican Inquisitions
Perotin - Viderunt omnes
Where is Burgundy??? ...
And why in Burgundy?

Where is De Lage Landen?

...The Flemish School?
.......The Burgundian School?
Philip the Good

Peace & Stability
Reign: 1419-67 (48 yrs)

Patronage of the arts
by 1506 - 33 court musicians
panoply of instruments
Feast of the Pheasant (1454)

Charles the Bold
The Flemish/Burgundian School of COMPOSERS
ARS NOVA matures...

General characteristics & innovations
highly polyphonic
ingenious, artful complexity
built around
cantus firmus
e.g. L'homme armé
the text matters!
musical puzzles, intricate design
exact notation evolves
The MASTERS of the Burgundian School

Guillaume du Fay … (Dufay) (1397-1474)

Masses - multiple attributions, full masses by a single composer...
Motets (sacred, 3 part harmony; isorhythms)
Use of cantus firmus
Polyphonic Chanson

Gilles Binchois (c. 1400-60)
Jean Ockeghem (c. 1410-97)
teacher to Desprez...

John Dunstable (English) (d. 1453)
Dufay Masse L'homme armé (Kyrie)
Dufay Masse L'homme armé (Credo)
Dufay - Motet - Nuper rosarum flores
Binchois - Lune tres belle
Ockeghem - L'homme armé (Kyrie)
Il Duomo di Firenze (Florence)
Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiori
"Nuper rosarium flores" (1436)
1296-1436 (140yrs)
length : 502 ft.
width 124 ft.
width at crossing 295 ft.
hight at arches 75 ft.
height to lantern in dome 295 ft.
Dome - designed/built by Filippo Brunelleschi
octagonal form
37000 tons of material; 4 million bricks
Facade -
polychrome marble panels
green and pink
Fresco - interior of dome
Giorgio Vasari
Andreas Vesalius
Leondardo da Vinci
Nicolas Copernicus
Galileo Galilei
Johannes Kepler
Tycho Brahes
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola
Desidarius Erasmus
Thomas More
Niccoló Machiavelli
the printing press
the compass
...and THE ARTS!
anatomical form
Agesander, Athenodoros and Polydorus, of Rhodes
c. 25 BCE
Leonardo da Vinci
Michelangelo di Lodovico
Buonarrroti Simoni
Cristobal Colón
Johannes Guttenberg
Moorish reign in Spain ends with capture of Granda
Ferdinand & Isabella under spell of Torquemada - The Grand Inquisitioner
Jews expelled from Spain

Lorenzo de' Medici dies in Florence
the epitome of the Renaissance humanist ideal
the model for the Renaissance Man
painter, sculptor, architect, musician, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer
born out of wedlock to a notary and peasant woman in Vinci, Florence, Italy
educated in a studio under tutelage of Florentine painter Verrocchio
lived and worked in Milan, Rome, Bologna, Venice and France
95 Theses
Diet of Worms
German translation of Bible
Martin Luther
The RENAISSANCE in summary:
a time of rebirth in learning, science, and the arts throughout Europe.

a rediscovery of the writings of ancient Greece and Rome led to a renewed interest in learning in general.

the PRINTING PRESS allowed the disbursement of this knowledge in an unprecedented manner.

the COMPASS permitted the navigation of the world’s oceans and the subsequent discovery of lands far removed from the European continent.

Copernicus’ discovery of the actual position of the earth in the solar system and Martin Luther’s Protestant Reformation, result in the Catholic Church losing its grip on society and a HUMANIST SPIRIT was born.

This spirit manifested itself in the painting and sculpture of Michelangelo, the plays of Shakespeare, and in both the sacred and secular dance and vocal music of the greatest composers of the era.
Social & Political Contexts of the Era

Humanist learning resulted in:
Arts = important measure of learning & culture
Music moves from being a Science of number to an Expressive Art (equal to Rhetoric)
Printed music spreads access widely and quickly
Court and Civic patronage of arts increases widely
Church patronage an important counterpoint to Court and Civic arts

Territorial expansion and increased wealth feed the development of the Arts
Travel results in an emerging international style of music and standardization of practices

Composers of the Renaissance era concerned themselves with THREE general areas of musical development:

SACRED MUSIC - use of older forms for liturgical use (Masses) and religious expression (Motets) continued.
Reformation & Counter-Reformation music evolves with the split in the Christian church.

SECULAR MUSIC - composers created new forms of musical expression that reflected national trends, such as Italian & English Madrigals, French Chanson and Opera

INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC - the rise of PRINTED MUSIC encouraged the spread of instrumental music for AMATEUR musicians, which fostered experimentation with new forms and expressive techniques
The Great Composers
The French & Germans
The Italians
The English
Josquin Desprez (1440- 1521)
Giovanni da Palestrina
(c. 1525- 1594)
Carlo Gesualdo (1566-1613)
Heirich Isaac
(c. 1450-1517)
Luca Marenzio (c. 1553-1599)
Claudio Monteverdi
John Dowland (1563-1626)
Thomas Morley
(c. 1558-1602)
Thomas Tallis (1505-1585)
The Elizabethans
Orlando Gibbons
Tallis - Spem in Alem
(40 part Motet)
Josquin - Missa L'Homme Arme
Josquin - El Grillo
Isaac - Innsbruck ich muss dich lassen
Palestrina - Missa Papae Marcelli
Dowland - Come Again
The Baroque Era

17th Century

L'Orfeo - Possente Spirto e formidabil Nume
L'Orfeo: Act 1 Prologue "Dal mi permesso"
L'Orfeo Overture
MONTEVERDI LOrfeo (1978)
Nikolaus Harnoncourt, direction
Renaissance to Baroque
1450 - 1600
1600 - 1750
300 years

Rebirth in arts & learning

The human form

Humanism & Reformation

Printing press

...permission (anything is possible)


New worlds...

Race for domination

Conquests & Colonial experiments

Expansion in arts & learning

The pearl…

Absolutism & Division

Catholic vs. Protestant

…abuse of permission (outrageous extravagance)

On the way to Enlightenment

Laws of science

Laws of society

Claudio Monteverdi -
the bridge to the BAROQUE

L'Orfeo (1607)
Il ritorno dUlisse in patria (1640)
Lincoronazione di Poppea (1642)
ballets: Il ballo delle ingrate (1608)
Tirsi e Clori (1616)
Volgendo il ciel (?1636)
Combattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda, dramatic dialogue (1624)

c.220 works incl. 9 madrigal bks: Bk 1 (1587), Bk 2 (1590), Bk 3 (1592), Bk 4 (1603), Bk 5 (1605), Bk 6 (1614), Bk 7, incl. Chiome doro (1619), Bk 8, Madrigali guerreri et amorosi (1638), Bk 9 (1651)
Lamento dArianna, from lost opera (1608)
canzonettas (1584)
Scherzi musicali, 2 bks (1607, 1632)

Vespers (1610)
3 masses
2 Magnificats
Madrigali spirituali (1583)
c.140 works, incl. motets, psalms etc, some in Selva morale e spirituale (1640)
L'incoronazione di Poppea
Monteverdi: Combattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda
Gesualdo - Sesto libro di madrigali:
XVII. Moro, lasso, al mio duolo
Gibbons - "What is Life?"
8th Book of Madrigals:
Madrigali dei Guerrieri et Amorosi
"Lamento della Ninfa"
Madrigali - morale e spirituale
"Dixit dominus"
BAROQUE aesthetic sensibilities

The tale of the baroque PEARL - Barocco : asymmetric luminosity

The Curved line

The Effects of LIGHT & SHADE (chiaroscuro)

The fantastic splendor of COLOR & ORNAMENT

“the vehement, the passionate, the terrible, the elemental” (Leichtentritt)

ECCENTRIC as opposed to Concentric
(i. e. conventional)

Opulent, exquisite, superficial, ornate, gaudy, garish, ornate, seething
Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571–1610)
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (1606-1669)
Sir Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)
b. 1567
d. 1643
b. 1632
d. 1687
b. 1659
d. 1695
b. 1678
d. 1741
b. 1653
d. 1713
b. 1683
d. 1764
b. 1685
d. 1750
d. 1758
Caravaggio & Gentileschi
Rubens & Rembrandt
Milton, Defoe & Cervantes
Locke & Descarte
Galileo & Newton
Louis XIV & XV (France)
Frederick the Great (Prussia)

Claudio Monteverdi
Henry Purcell
Archangelo Corelli
Jean-Baptiste Lully
Jean-Phillipe Rameau
Antonio Vivaldi
J.S. Bach †1750
Domenico Scarlatti
George Frideric Handel
Rubens & Rembrandt
Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616) -
Don Quixote de La Mancha
John Milton (1608-74) -
Paradise Lost
Daniel Defoe (c.1660-1731) -
Robinson Crusoe

prototype exploration of the novel, and allegorical poetry

Rene Descarte (1596-1650) -
"Cogito ergo sum"
John Locke (1632-1704) -
The social contract & the mind as a "tabula rasa"
founders of modern philosohpy, psychology and political science

Galileo Galileli (1564-1642) -
the telescope, heliocentric proof, physics
Isaac Newton (1642-1727) -
the universal laws of gravity, three laws of motion, invented the reflecting telescope, theory of color/light spectrum, invented calculus
perhaps the greatest, most influential scientist in Western History
founders of the "Scientific Revolution"
Louis XIV (1638-1715)
longest reign in European history: 72 yrs, 110 days
"Divine Right of Kings"
Centalized state
The Palace of Versailles

Frederick the Great (1712-1786)
King of Prussia/Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire
Enlightened Absolutistism
friends with Voltaire
promoted religious tolerance
patronized arts/philosophy

Baroque extravagance at it's maximum
New FORMS in the Baroque Era
With the standardization of the diatonic key system (Major and Minor) the following new forms of composition flourished throughout out the Baroque
Concerto (Grosso)

A Sonata VS Sonata Form
basso continuo
The fugue

ZEITGIEST : The Age of Enlightenment

The Age of Reason
The Age of Revolution
THE AMERICAN (1772-83)
THE FRENCH (1789-99)
The Age of Scientific Discovery & Invention

“This was an age of Enlightenment and science and world-shaking invention. Benjamin Franklin began his own experiments with electricity in 1751; Kant lived from 1724-1804, and influenced generations, as did Goethe from 1749-1832. In 1769 Watt patented his steam engine, across his life of 1769-1821 Napoleon re-made Europe, and in 1770 New York heard its first performance of the Messiah. A year later the First Edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica was published, in 1774 oxygen was discovered, and in 1776 came the Declaration of Independence. The steamboat was invented in 1788, and a year later came the first stirrings of the French Revolution. Louis XVI would lose his head in 1793, the Paris Conservatory would be founded in 1795, and in 1799 Beethoven wrote his first symphony. And from 1756-1791 Mozart walked the earth.” sfsymphony.org
“cool Apollonian”

…to feel pleasure,
to inspire, uplift, edify…

- Ancient Greece -
Neoclassical architecture,
geometric gardens

Enlightenment =
disinterested discourse,

Balance & Symmetry

Freedom in Form
simplicity, repetition
MONUMENTAL composers

b. 1756
b. 1732
b. 1770
Franz Joseph Haydn

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Ludwig van Beethoven

Josiah Wedgwood
Vienna (Wien), Austria

Crossroads: Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Italy

Enlightened Absolutism

Expanded religious rights & freedoms (Jews)


Patron of the arts and music
Joseph II
Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire,
…enlightened absolutism

“The pursuit of happiness…”

The Salon

Public concerts

The Novel - Tom Jones

The Symphony - Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven
"La Mort de Marat" (1793)
by Jaques-Louis David
La Mort de Socretes
Jaques-Louis David
d. 1791
d. 1809
d. 1827
Haydn's Works
A few musical
of the Classical Era...



"natural", singable, uncomplicated, clear phrasing
consistency & variety
uncluttered, homophonic, melody-driven
balance & symmetry in all things
eloquent expressivity
dynamic contrasts (markings standardized)
crescendo ... diminuendo
The Piano-Forte
...but the question is...
...how can music be EXPANDED in terms of duration & depth, but remain NATURAL and easily understood ???
Some ELEGANT solutions:

THEMES - repetition, usually twice
TRANSITIONS - urgent, non-melodic, leading back to the THEME
CADENCES - highly recognizable endings
Standardized FORMAL MODELS
OPERA = large work
An opera is a large-scale dramatic work for theater.

vocal categories associated with character type
The Castrato
Opera Seria vs. Opera Buffa

Opera Seria (Venice)
the original Italian style developed in the 17th c.
topics: history and mythology
minimal drama; focused on arias

Opera Buffa (Naples)
variation on the Seria form
popularized in early 18th c.
linked to comic tradition: commedia dell'arte
topics: love; moral tales; humor and satire
storytelling; character roles (Bass = fool)
The Overture
(this would evolve into the Symphonia and eventually the Classical Symphony)

a long solo
virtuoso vocal music
emotional depth of the character expressed
da capo = ABA form
speech-like; melodically static
Duets, Trios, Quratets, etc.
Instrumental interludes:
suites, dances (esp. in French opera)
French innovations

Lully & Rameau
Versailles ... court entertainments
Italian arias were abandoning dance and chorus from the performances...
Lully reinforces these aspects
"Tragédie en musique" vs. "Opéra comique"
Pomp, spectacle, dance, homage to the King
Massive orchestra (80 instruments)
The ROCOCO STYLE = Baroque on steroids
Rameau refines, deepens, enobles
Rousseau - prophet of Enlightement
ORATORIO = "oratory" or extended speech

A large-scale, non-theatrical musical work for Orchestra, chorus and soloists.

ORCHESTRA : 15-30 instruments, including keyboard

CHORUS : 30-60 voice choir

SOLOISTS : S, A, T, B ; no castrato

SACRED THEMES - Biblical characters, stories and narratives
Protestant: Bible characters
Catholic: lives of Saints

The Overture or Symphonia
a long solo
virtuoso vocal music
Recitative Secco (dry)
speech-like; melodically static; accompanied by continuo
Recitative Accompagnato
more melismatic; orchestral accompaniment
Duets, Trios, Quratets, etc.
Instrumental interludes:
Short symphonies, i.e. Symphony Pastoral

b. 1732, Rohrau, Austria (near boarder of Hungary)

Father Matthias - wheelwright & "Marktrichter"
folk musician, harp
Mother Maria - cooks for local nobility

Young Joseph (age 6) apprentices with Johann Franck ten miles from home. Never lives with his parents again...
learns: harpsichord, violin
sings soprano in church choir

1740 - audtions with Reutter, music director St. Stephens inVienna.
1749 - dismissed from choir due to physical maturity ... begins career as freelance musician.
Haydn String Quartet No.5 in D major,
Op.64 'The Lark' - mvt 1
Frederick the Great - Prussia (Berlin)
Carl Philipp Emanuel BACH
...would influence HAYDN
Large orchestra
Fiery mixture of French, Italian & German style
Patronized the arts richly
Set the stage for modern orchestras
Facilitated the development of national & transnational style
Appointed the best composers/musicians in Europe
King George III - Britain (London)
Johann Christian BACH
...would influence MOZART
First subscription concerts (pianoforte)
Eloquent mix of French and Italian style
Duke Charles Theodore of Sulzbach - Electorate of Bavaria (Mannheim)
Johann Stamitz
Mannheim orchestra
dynamic crescendos & decrescendos
brass fanfares
elaborate performance standards
Impact upon all of Europe
Influence on Haydn and Mozart

1749-59 - freelance composer, and accompanist
Nicola Porpora
wrote first string 4tets, first opera
first position as Kappelmeister for Count Morizin
first symphonies
Marries Maria Anna (an unhappy alliance)

1761-1791 - The Esterhazy Estate (30 years!)
Eisenstadt (Winter palace of the Esterhaza)
Haydn - the liveried servant
Paul Anton
Nicolaus I
THE CONTRACT – Vice-Kapellmeister
“The said Haydn…must be temperate, not showing himself overbearing toward his musicians…The said Haydn shall take care that he appear in white stockings and white linen, powdered, and with either a pigtail or a tiewig. …He should conduct himself in an exemplary manner, abstaining from undue familiarity, and from vulgarity in eating, drinking, and conversation.”

Three rooms; FULL TIME service as composer
In charge of all music activities of the court, the orchestra and care for the instruments of the palace
Opera Theater, Marionette Theater
Two concert halls
25 member Orchestra
Opera Company of 12
Directed two instrumental concerts & two opera evenings PER WEEK
mostly his own compositions
mounted 75+ operas by other composers

108 Symphonies
100+ String quartets, trios, duets
170+ Concertos for various instruments (incl. "Baryton)
40 Piano trios
60+ Piano sonatas, duets, etc.
32 for Mechanical Clock
20+ Choral works/Oratorios/Masses
13 Operas
300 Folksong arrangements (Scottish & Welsh)

1781 - Haydn (49) meets Mozart (25)
a unique friendship
mutual respect & admiration
mutual influence

Haydn's "Russian" string quartets lead to six quartets by Mozart dedicated to "Papa Haydn"

Mozart's brilliant symphonies lead to Haydn's London Symphonies

Mozart's operas lead to Haydn giving up on the genre entirely after 1787
"He (Haydn) alone has the secret of making me smile and touching me to the bottom of my soul." W.A. Mozart
"I should be risking a great deal, for scarcely any man can brook comparison with the great Mozart!"
F.J. Haydn

1790 - Prince Nicolaus dies

1791 - W. A. Mozart dies

1791 - Haydn travels to London to great acclaim

1794-95 - Haydn return to London
London Symphonies (Nos. 93-104)

1797-98 - Oratorio "The Creation"

1799-1801 - Oratorio "The Seasons"

1809 - Napoleon shells Vienna; Haydn dies of shock
Napoleon halts the invasion for 10 days in honor of the greatest composer of Europe
"Art must imitate Nature. As soon as this imitation is exceeded, however, art is to be condemned. It is not art that endows nature with beauty, but nature that endows art....The more extravagant art becomes...the more it alienates itself from nature. It is therefore a fact that too much art obscrures true beauty." J. A. Schiebe 1730
1772 - The "Sun" String Quartets, Op 20,
Nos. 1-6; No. 5, 1st mvt.
Sturm und Drang (Storm & Stress) style
1781 - The "Russian" String Quartets Op. 33, Nos. 1-6,
No. 2 in E flat, 4th mvt (scherzo)
rondo form
1772 - Symphony No. 45 in F# Minor,
"The Farewell"
Mvt. No. 4, presto/adagio
1791-94 - The London Symphonies, Nos. 93-104
"The Surprise"
No. 94, G Minor, Mvt. 2 (1791)
1798 - The Creation (an Oratorio)
(The Representation of Chaos)
The history of Europe = war for borders
Joannes Chrisostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus MOZART
GERMAN: Johannes Chrisostomos Wolfgan Gottlieb MOZART
Wolfgang Amadé Mozart
...the superlatives:

"For one moment in the history of music, all opposites were reconciled; all tensions resolved; that luminous moment was Mozart" -
20th c. historian
"Before God, and as an honest man I can tell you that your son is the greatest composer known to me, either in person or by name. He has taste and, what is more, the most profound knowledge of composition."
F. J. Haydn
"A phenomenon like Mozart in an inexplicable thing. - Goethe
Childhood & Youth : 1756 - 1774 (to 18 yrs.)
First Masterworks: 1774-1781 (18-25 yrs.)
Vienna: 1781 - 1791 (25-35† yrs.)
The SONATA FORM is the most common form in classical and romantic music. This form is commonly used in the first movement of sonatas, string quartets, symphonies and even concertos.

It has three main sections:

Variety of keys, thematic variation, sense of instability, often chromatic passages
In RONDO FORM, section A is repeated several times
with new sections presented between each repetition.
A C A (D) A
Section A can be repeated with variations.
Composers generally try to achieve some contrast between section
and the use of differet keys for different sections is very common.
V or III
Minuet & Trio
MINUET - dance form in 3/8 or 6/8 meter

||: a :||: b (a') :||
TRIO - generally same key, shorter, with ligher orchestration. Same binary form.
MINUET - da capo
Standardized 4-mvt plan
I - Allegro (Sonata)
II - Andante moderato (Sonata or Rondo)
III - Minuet & Trio (Minuet)
IV - Allegro or Presto (Rondo)
This video is a good, general explanation of SONATA FORM. This is the first of seven episodes that can be found on YouTube under the title Sonata Form.
Here's another very good discussion of Sonata Form by one of the great teachers in the 20th century, Leonard Bernstein
Op.76 - "Erdödy", No. 2 in D minor ("Quintin" = Fifths)
The History of European Geography
from the 1770's
...and sometimes "Wolfy"
b. 1756 - Salzburg, Austria

FATHER - Leopold
composer, violinist, teacher & "Hollywood parent"
could be domineering, beloved by Mozart
MOTHER - Anna Maria
SISTER - Nannerl
The Prodigy

Age 4-6 : became skilled performer (harpsichord & violin)
Age 8 : first symphony
Age 11 : first oratorio - "Die Schuldigkeit des ersten Gebots"
Age 12 : first opera - "Apollo et Hyacinthus"
Age 17 : 6 String Quartets (after Haydn's influence)

EUROPEAN TOURS with Leopold and Nannerl
1762 - Vienna
1763 - Paris (Marie Antoinette)
1764 - London
1769 - Rome - feats of genius...

Age 15 : 1771-77 - entered services of Archbishop of Salzburg
Symphony No. 7, D major, K. 45
Vienna, 1768 (age 12)
Haydn's credo: "Often, as I struggled with obstacles of every kind opposed to my works - often, as my physical and mental powers sank and I had difficulty in keeping to my chosen course - an inner voice whispered to me: "There are so few happy and contented men here below - on every hand care and sorrow pursue them - perhaps your work may someday be a source from which men laden with anxieties and burdened with affairs may derive a few moments of rest and refreshment." This, then, was a powerful motive to persevere, this the reason why I can even now look back with profound satisfaction on what I have accomplished." - c. 1808
Kappelmeister to Freelance-meister
Archbishop Hieronymus von Colloredo
Munich ... Milan
1777 - PARIS! (accompanied by mother)
Anna Maria dies in Paris
The Weber family
Love ... Aloysia
Salzburg (again)
success - "Idomeneo"
summoned to Vienna by the archbishop
fired! ... but free
1781 - Vienna
living with the Webers
Love & marriage - Constanza (1782)
Cardinal Archbishop Hieronymus Graf von Colleredo
Popular throughout Europe
Very influential on the young Mozart
"the joke" scherzo ... 5 false endings
clever, ironic touches
straightforward classical form
famous inside joke in 4th mvt.
A.K.A. - the Salomen symphonies (patron)
Nicknames: Surprise, Military, Clock
operatic in approach
glorious depiction of Chaos
harmonic turbulence
foreshadows Wagner
In his own words: "Though it be long, the work is complete and finished in my mind. I take out of the bag of my memory what has previously been collected into it. For this reason, the committing to paper is done quickly enough. For everything is already finished, and it rarely differed on paper from what it was in my imagination. At this work I can therefore allow myself to be disturbed. Whatever may be going on about me, I can write and even talk."
Symphonies : 25 & 29
13 Piano Sonatas
Instrumental quartets, septets, etc.
Violin & Piano sonata in E minor
Serenade for Strings, in G, No. 13
Eine kleine nachtmusik (K. 525)
Piano Concerto No. 9
Cornation Mass in C major (K. 271)
C Minor Mass (K. 427)
Idomeneo - opera seria/buffa
Serenade for Strings, No. 13, in G
"Eine kleine nacht musik"
Piano Concerto No. 20, D minor
Piano-forte 1805
Piano Sonata, No. 11, K. 331
A major, "Alla Turca"
1st Mvt. Andante grazioso
Mitzuko Uchida
Symphony No. 29, in A major, Mvt. 1 - Allegro moderato
K. 201/186a
The complete list of

626 catalogued works (Ludwig von Köchel) 1825
1000 works total

41 Symphonies
40+ Piano Concertos
25+ works for Solo Piano
50+ Violin Sonatas
36 String 4tets/5tets
100+ Misc. Chamber Music pieces
20+ Masses, and sacred works
22 Operas (various genres)
The Works

Symphonies 31-41
39, 40, 41 (1788 in 6 weeks!!)
15 Piano Concerto (12-27)
5 Piano Sonatas
String Quartets (8-23)
Haydn Quartets
Prussian Quartets
G minor String Quintet
10 Operas
Die Entfung aus dem Serail
Le Nozze di Figaro (1786)
Don Giovanni (1787)
Cosí fan tutti (1789)
Die Zauberflöte (1791)
La clemenza di Tito (1791)
C minor Mass
Requiem Mass in D minor (unfinished)
On 20 November, 1791, during a fever epidemic, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart unexpectedly took ill - developing a high fever, headache, sweats, and severe swelling and pain in his hands and legs. By the 14th day of his illness, his swelling had worsened to the extent that his entire body had gained 'Pillsbury Doughboy' proportions. With the swelling came nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, a persistent rash and an abominable reek which rose from his body to greet his visitors. A sudden change in character drove him to banish his pet canary from his sick room in irritation. On the 5 December, just fifteen days after the onset of illness, the great musician suffered a convulsion, lapsed into a coma and died. He was 35 years old.
Only a few people followed his coffin to a pauper’s grave in a violent rainstorm; the grave was unmarked. ** ...however, read Swafford's account, and history is clearer on the points surrounding his burial and memorial.
String Quartet No. 19 in C major,
K. 465 'Dissonance' - I. Adagio - Allegro
He is not the shepherd driving his flock before him; he is the bull marching at the head of his herd...
In painting his portrait, I paint that of his stock – our century, our dream, ourselves... Joy! Not the gross joy of the soul that gorges itself in its stable, but the joy of ordeal, of pain, of battle, of suffering overcome, of victory over one’s self, the joy of destiny subdued, espoused...And the great bull with its
fierce eye, its head raised, its four hooves planted on the summit, at the edge of the abyss, whose roar is heard above the time

- Romain Rolland, "Beethoven, the Creator" (1927)
“Music is the one incorporeal entrance into the higher world of knowledge
which comprehends mankind but which mankind cannot comprehend.”
Ludwig van Beethoven
Here is how Romain Rolland describes Beethoven’s final day: "That day was tragic. There were heavy clouds in the sky… around 4 or 5 in the afternoon the murky clouds cast darkness in the entire room. Suddenly a terrible storm started, with blizzard and snow… thunder made the room shudder, illuminating it with the cursed reflection of lightning on snow. Beethoven opened his eyes and with a threatening gesture raised his right arm towards the sky with his fist clenched. The expression of his face was horrifying. His hand fell to the ground. His eyes closed. Beethoven was no more."
...so, how can one get at such an enormously influential, revolutionary figure, such as BEETHOVEN? ...

BOOKS on BEETHOVEN: http://www.lvbeethoven.com/Biblio/BooksLife.html

There are 1000s of recordings of Beethoven's works on record and CD.
classicalarchives.com lists at least 111 recordings of the 9th Symphony alone...
According to (http://www.sporcle.com/games/ckrubin/classical_composers) Beethoven's works are the third most recorded pieces with 4763 recordings, just behind J.S. Bach (5,719) and W.A. Mozart (6,340)

b. 1770 Bonn, Germany
Father - Johann
court musician
intention - to turn Ludwig into another child prodigy, alla Mozart...
beaten, overworked, neglected
Tutor: C.G. Neefe
J.S. Bach adherent
good training in counterpoint
keyboard improvization

1787 (age 17)
studies briefly with Mozart
studies with Haydn (unsuccessfully)

Brilliant performer and improvisor
Outstanding early works as a composer
Piano works
Symphonies Nos. 1 & 2
impetuous, willful, stubborn

loved and appreciated his teachers
dedications to Haydn and Salieri
Requiem in D Minor,
Die Zauberflöte, Act II,
"Der Hölle Rache",
The Queen of the Night,
sung by Diana Damrau
THE WORKS - 1770-1800 - imitative period
Symphony No. 1, in C Major,
I. Adagio molto - Allegro con brio
(1799-1800), premiered 1800
21 Piano Sonatas
No. 8 in C Minor (Pathétique)
No. 14 in C-sharp Minor (Moonlight)
8 Violin Sonatas
Op. 18 String Quartets (1-6)
3 (of 5) Piano Concertos
Piano Sonata No. 8, C Minor,
"Pathetique" Mvt. 1
Daniel Barenboim
Piano Sonata No. 14, C# Minor,
Mvt. I, "The Moonlight"
Daniel Barenboim
Quartet No. 4 in D minor, Op. 18 No. 4
I. Allegro ma non tanto
Takeuchi String Quartet
The HEROIC Period
1800 - established as the greatest improvisor of his generation
Proclamation: "I am now making a fresh start!"
The "Eroica" - one of the most transforming works in musical history
Bonaparte's name stricken from the title
Realization: losing his hearing...
1802 letter: Heiligenstadt Testament
"Only Art, only art held me back, ah, it seemed impossible to me that I should leave the world before I had produced all that I felt I might, and so I spared this wretched life."..."O Providence - grant me one pure day of Joy - the inner reverberation of true Joy has so long been a stranger to me - O when - O when O Deity - may I feel it once more in the Temple of Nature and Mankind - Never?- O it would be too hard."
Other ailments: chronic diarrhea, enlarged pancreas, cirrhosis of liver, deterioration of skull bones ... possibly Lupus or lead poisoning.

Determination: "I shall seize Fate by the throat; most assuredly it shall not get me wholly down."
Embodiment of Romantic Hero

For my brothers Carl and Johann Beethoven

Oh you men who think or say that I am malevolent, stubborn, or misanthropic, how greatly do you wrong me. You do not know the secret cause which makes me seem that way to you. From childhood on, my heart and soul have been full of the tender feeling of goodwill, and I was even inclined to accomplish great things. But, think that for six years now I have been hopelessly afflicted, made worse by senseless physicians, from year to year deceived with hopes of improvement, finally compelled to face the prospect of a lasting malady (whose cure will take years or, perhaps, be impossible).
   Though born with a fiery, active temperament, even susceptible to the diversions of society, I was soon compelled to isolate myself, to live life alone. If at times I tried to forget all this, oh, how harshly was I flung back by the doubly sad experience of my bad hearing. Yet it was impossible for me to say to people, "Speak Louder, shout, for I am deaf". Oh, how could I possibly admit an infirmity in the one sense which ought to be more perfect in me than others, a sense which I once possessed in the hightést perfection, a perfection such as few in my profession enjoy or ever have enjoyed. – Oh I cannot do it; therefore forgive me when you see me draw back when I would have gladly mingled with you.

   My misfortune is doubly painful to me because I am bound to be misunderstood; for me there can be no relaxation with my fellow men, no refined conversations, no mutual exchange of ideas. I must live almost alone, like one who has been banished. I can mix with society only as much as true necessity demands. If I approach near to people a hot terror seizes upon me, and I fear being exposed to the danger that my condition might be noticed. Thus it has been during the last six months which I have spent in the country. By ordering me to spare my hearing as much as possible, my intelligent doctor almost fell in with my own present frame of mind, though sometimes I ran counter to it by yielding to my desire for companionship.
   But what a humiliation for me when someone standing next to me heard a flute in the distance and I heard nothing, or someone standing next to me heard a shepherd singing and again I heard nothing. Such incidents drove me almost to despair; a little more of that and I would have ended my life. It was only my art that held me back. Oh, it seemed to me impossible to leave the world until I had forth all that I felt was within me. So I endured this wretched existence, truly wretched for so susceptible a body, which can be thrown by a sudden change from the best condition to the worst. Patience, they say, is what I must now choose for my guide, and I have done so - I hope my determination will remain firm to endure until it pleases the inexorable Parcae to break the thread. Perhaps I shall get better, perhaps not; I am ready. - Forced to become a philosopher already in my twenty-eight year, oh, it is not easy, and for the artist much more difficult than for anyone else. Divine One, thou seest my inmost soul thou knowest that therein dwells the love of mankind and the desire to do good. Oh, fellow men, when at some point you read this, consider then that you have done me injustice. Someone who has had misfortune may console himself to find a similar case to his, who despite all the limitations of Nature nevertheless did everything within his powers to become accepted among worthy artist and men.
   You, my brothers Carl and Johann, as soon as I am dead, if Dr. Schmid is still alive, ask him in my name to describe my malady, and attach this written documentation to his account of my illness so that so far as it is possible at least the world may become reconciled to me after my death. At the same time, I declare you two to be the heirs to my small fortune (if so it can be called); divide it fairly, bear with and help each other. What injury you have done me you know was long ago forgiven. To you, brother Carl, I give special thanks for the attachment you have shown me of late. It is my wish that you may have at better and freer life than I have had. Recommend virtue to your children; it alone, not money, can make them happy. I speak from experience; this was what upheld me in time of misery. Thanks for it and to my art, I did not end my life by suicide - Farewell and love each other.
   I thank all my friends, particularly Prince Lichnowsky and Professor Schmid; I would like the instruments from Prince L. to be preserved by one of you, but not to be the cause of strife between you, and as soon as they can serve you a better purpose, then sell them. How happy I shall be if I can still be helpful to you in my grave - so be it. With joy I hasten towards death. If it comes before I have had the chance to develop all my artistic capacities, it will still be coming too soon despite my harsh fate, and I should probably wish it later - yet even so I should be happy, for would it not free me from the state of endless suffering? Come when thou wilt, I shall meet thee bravely. Farewell and do not wholly forget me when I am dead; I deserve this from you, for during my lifetime I was thinking of you often and of ways to make you happy - be soo - .

   Ludwig van Beethoven
   October 6th, 1802

   October 6th, 1802
Symphony No. 3 "Eroica"
Leonard Bernstein, Wiener Philharmoniker
1804 - Symphony No. 3 in E flat Major - "Eroica"
Rasumovsky String Quartets, Op. 59
Piano Concertos Nos. 4 & 5
Symphonies 4-8
No. 4 in B flat Major (1806/1807)
No. 5 in C Minor (1804-1808)
No. 6 in F Major "Pastoral" (1808)
No. 7 in A Major (1813)
No. 8 in F Major (1814)
Piano Sonatas :
No. 21 "Waldstein"
No. 23 "Appassionata"
"Fidelio" - the only opera
Sonata for Violin & Piano - "Kreutzer"
Piano Sonata No. 21, in C Major, "Waldstein"
Vladamir Horowitz




Symphony No. 3, 1st Mvt. Allegro con brio
color-coded analysis
The burdens of poor health
Viennese popularity on the wane
Family tensions
Brother Karl dies (1815)
Nephew Karl ... guardianship
obsession, neglect, failure
drained creative energy

1820's - renewed, transcendent creativity
Symphony No. 9
The string quartets
The Diabelli Variations

Sketches for 10th symphony
String Quartet op. 135
New lightness of spirit
December - hitched a ride...
bed-ridden, coma
March 26 - storming, lightning-flash, Beethoven awakens & shakes his fist at the sky, then falls back to his pillow, dead.
The Periods of Western Music

Ancient Music - Greek & Roman : 700bce - 476ce
Early Music - Christian Music : 100ce - 500
The Middle Ages (Medieval) : 500 - 1400
The Renaissance : 1400 - 1600
The Baroque : 1600 - 1750
The Classical : 1750 - 1810
The Romantic : 1810 - 1900...
The 20th Century : 1900 - 2000
Pythagoras of Samos
c.570-495 bce
Plato c.424 -348 bce
Aristotle 384-322 bce
Ptolomy 90-168 ce
Augustine of Hippo
354-430 ce
Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius
musica universalis

man vs. cosmos
time vs. eternity
The Tetractys :

x x
x x x
x x x x
The monochord ...
discovery of intervalic RATIOS
frequency ratios
"ratio" = "logos"
"logos" = the word
the word = THE WORD
THE WORD = Jesus, God incarnate
The Cosmos = concentric spheres
musical ratios between the spheres
gifted can hear the music
Earth to Moon = whole step
Moon to Mercury = 1/2 step
Mercury to Venus = 1/2 step
Venus to Sun = minor 3rd
Sun to Mars = whole step
Mars to Jupiter = 1/2 step
Jupiter to Saturn = 1/2 step
Saturn to the Fixed Stars = minor 3rd
Calculates mathmatics between Cosmos and the production of human souls
The MYTH of ER (The Republic)
The Spindle of Necessity
Musical Ethics
music as a means to educating the souls of men
potential for mis-education
Marcus Tullius Cicero
106-43 bce
Medieval Gregorian Chant.
Title: "Circumdederunt me"
Service: Good Friday Passion
Medieval Old Roman Chant (7th century AD).
Title: "Tractus: Domine audivi auditum tuum"
Service: Adoration of the Cross.
Performers: Ensemble Organum, Director: Marcel Peres
Album: "Chants de l' Eglise de Rome (VIIe & XIIIe siecles)"
Gregorian Missa da Requiem (9th century) - Libera me

Ensemble Organum

Marcel Pérès

Deliver me, O Lord, from death eternal on that fearful day,
when the heavens and the earth shall be moved,
when thou shalt come to judge the world by fire.
I am made to tremble, and I fear, till the judgment be upon us, and the coming wrath,
when the heavens and the earth shall be moved.
That day, day of wrath, calamity, and misery, day of great and exceeding bitterness,
when thou shalt come to judge the world by fire.
Rest eternal grant unto them, O Lord: and let light perpetual shine upon them.
= unity (singular, point)
= dyad (power, limit/unlimit, line)
= harmony (begining/middle/end, plane)
= kosmos (unification, 4 elements, tetrahedron)

"Bless us, divine number, thou who generated gods and men! O holy, holy Tetractys, thou that containest the root and source of the eternally flowing creation! For the divine number begins with the profound, pure unity until it comes to the holy four; then it begets the mother of all, the all-comprising, all-bounding, the first-born, the never-swerving, the never-tiring holy ten, the keyholder of all".[3]
Muhammad - The Prophet - 570-632ce

The Califs aggressively expand
The Battle of Tours - 732
Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer)
‘Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi
Prevents invasion of Islam on Europe
Establishes the foundation of the Carolingian Empire
Islamic expansion from 632 - 1100

Mohammed’s death 632
Defeat of Saracen army in the Battle of Tours - 732

8th-9th centuries - Islamic Golden Age

8 or 9 Crusades in total from 1095 - 1271
Emperor of Byzantium's request

Influences of Crusade Expeditions on Music

Influences on the development of musical forms, styles, singing
Arguable influence on the development of Gothic architecture
Likely introduction of lute-like instruments that would eventually become Lutes and Guitars in European culture
AND ... the tug between Classical vs Romantic!
Monophony ... Polyphony
Romanesque .... Gothic
Ars Antiqua .... Ars Nova
Masculine .... Feminine

How many valiant men, how many fair ladies, breakfast with their kinfolk and the same night supped with their ancestors in the next world! The condition of the people was pitiable to behold. They sickened by the thousands daily, and died unattended and without help. Many died in the open street, others dying in their houses, made it known by the stench of their rotting bodies. Consecrated churchyards did not suffice for the burial of the vast multitude of bodies, which were heaped by the hundreds in vast trenches, like goods in a ships hold and covered with a little earth.
—Giovanni Boccaccio[72]

O Fortuna
Carl Orff (1895-1982)

The London Symphony Orchestra conducted by Richard Hickox
O fortuna
Jeffrey Thomas, Davis University

Si puer cum puellula
moraretur in cellula,
felix coniunctio.
Amore succrescente,
pariter e medio
propulso procul taedio,
fit ludus ineffabilis
membris, lacertis, labiis.
If a boy lingers with a little girl in a cellar, their meeting is fortunate. As Love increases and for both (pariter) boredom is dispatched far from their midst, an indescribable game occurs with limbs, shoulders, lips.

The following translation of J.A. Symonds is rather free but captures the spirit of the original:

When a young man, passion-laden, 
in a chamber meets a maiden, 
then felicitous communion, 
by Love's strain between the twain, 
grows from forth their union; 
for the game, it hath no name, 
of lips, arms, and hidden charms.

Amor volat undique,
captus est libidine.
iuvenes, iuvenculae,
coniunguntur merito.
siqua sine socio,
caret omni gaudio;
tenet noctis infima
sub intimo
cordis in custodia; fit res amarissima.

Love flies everywhere, and is seized with passion. Young men and women come together, as is right. If a girl has no boyfriend, she is quite without joy; she harbours the depths of night shut up in her inmost heart. It is pure bitterness.

Were diu werlt alle min
von dem mere unze an den Rin,
des wolt ih mih darben
daz diu chunegin von Engellant
lege an minen armen.
If the world were all mine from the sea up to the Rhine, this I would willingly forego to have the queen of England lie in my arms.

In taberna quando sumus,
non curamus quid sit humus,
sed ad ludum properamus,
cui semper insudamus.
quid agatur in taberna
ubi nummus est pincerna,
hoc est opus ut quaeratur;
si quid loquar, audiatur.

Quidam ludunt,
quidam bibunt,
quidam indiscrete vivunt.
sed in ludo qui morantur,
ex his quidam denudantur,
quidam ibi vestiuntur,
quidam saccis induuntur;
ibi nullus timet mortem,
sed pro Baccho mittunt sortem.

Primo pro nummata vini;
ex hac bibunt libertini;
semel bibunt pro captivis,
post haec bibunt ter pro vivis,
quater pro Christianis cunctis,
quinquies pro fidelibus defunctis,
sexies pro sororibus vanis,
septies pro militibus silvanis.
octies pro fratribus perversis,
nonies pro monachis dispersis,
decies pro navigantibus,
undecies pro discordantibus,
duodecies pro paenitentibus,
tredecies pro iter agentibus.

Tam pro papa quam pro rege
bibunt omnes sine lege.
Bibit hera, bibit herus,
bibit miles, bibit clerus,
bibit ille, bibit illa,
bibit servus cum ancilla,
bibit velox, bibit piger,
bibit albus, bibit niger,
bibit constans, bibit vagus,
bibit rudis, bibit magus,
Bibit pauper et aegrotus,
bibit exul et ignotus,
bibit puer, bibit canus,
bibit praesul et decanus,
bibit soror, bibit frater,
bibit anus, bibit mater,
bibit ista, bibit ille,
bibunt centum, bibunt mille.

Parum sescentae nummatae
durant cum immoderate
bibunt omnes sine meta,
quamvis bibant mente laeta;
sic nos rodunt omnes gentes,
et sic erimus egentes.
qui nos rodunt confundantur
et cum iustis non scribantur.
When we are in the tavern, we do not care about what earth is (i.e. what we are made of), we set about gambling and over that we always sweat. We must investigate what happens in the tavern where money is the butler; pay attention to what I say.

Some gamble, some drink, some live without discretion. From those who spend their time in gambling, some are stripped bare, some win clothes, some are dressed in sacks; there no-one fears death, but for the wine they throw dice.

First, for the payment of the wine (i.e. who pays for the wine). Then the boozers start to drink; they drink once to those in prison, after that, three times for the living, four times for all Christendom, five times for the faithful departed, six times for sisters of loose virtue, seven times for soldiers of the forest, eight times for brothers in error, nine times for scattered monks, ten times for those who sail, eleven times for men quarrelling, twelve times for those doing penance, thirteen times for those on journeys.

For pope and king alike all drink without restraint.

The mistress drinks, so does the master, the soldier drinks, so does the cleric, that man drinks, that woman drinks, the servant drinks with the maid, the fast man drinks, so does the slow, the white man drinks, so does the black, the stay-at-home drinks, so does the wanderer, the fool drinks, so does the scholar.

The poor drink, and the sick, the exile and the unknown, the boy, the greybeard, the bishop, the deacon, sister, brother, old woman, mother, that woman, this man, they drink by the hundred, by the thousand.

Large sums of money last too short a time when everybody drinks without moderation and limit, even though they drink with a happy heart; in this everyone sponges on us and it will make us poor.

Damnation to those who sponge on us! Put not their names in the book of Just.
L'Homme Arme - cantus firmus
French popular song ...
Spem in alium

Spem in alium nunquam
habui praeter in te,
Deus Israel: qui irasceris et propitius eris,
et omnia peccata hominum
in tribulatione dimittis:
Domine Deus, Creator caeli et
respice humilitatem nostram.

I have never put my hope in any
besides you, O God of Israel,
who grows angry, but then,
becoming gracious, forgives all the
sins of men in their tribulation:
Lord God, creator of heaven and
earth, look upon our lowliness.
I die, alas, in my suffering,
And she who could give me life,
Alas, kills me and will not help me.
O sorrowful fate,
She who could give me life,
Alas, gives me death.
Jordi Saval version

String Quartet No. 19, C major "Dissonance"
Events surrounding the mysterious commission of the Requiem:
July 1791 - a grey-clad stranger arrives at Mozart's door
pays initial commission for a Requiem Mass for the Dead
Mozart begins imagining that this was Death visiting him, and that he was writing the Requiem for himself
Mozart works fiendishly on the Requiem until the very night of his death
December 4, on his death bed, he sings some of the Requiem to a few friends and Constanze
Franz Süssmayr, Mozart's student, promises to finish the mass
the mystery behind the commission: Count Franz von Walsegg, amateur composer, intended to claim the Requiem as his own, but confessed to the commission after Mozart's death
Full transcript