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BI 4: Animal Behavior

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by

Kimberly Christian

on 23 March 2016

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Transcript of BI 4: Animal Behavior

Animal Behavior
organisms exchange information
communication occurs through various mechanisms: visual, audible, tactile, electrical, chemical
communication accomplishes various goals: dominance, food location, territory establishment, ensure reproductive success
BEHAVIOR
(action carried out by muscles under control of the nervous system)

Can you...
analyze data that indicate how organisms exchange information in response to internal changes and external cues, which can change behavior?
create a representation that describes how organisms exchange information in response to internal changes and external cues, which can result in changes in behavior?
describe how organisms exchange information in response to internal changes or environmental cures?
organisms respond to changes in their environment with changes in behavior
behaviors allow organisms to accomplish life processes & maintain homeostasis
organisms communicate with each other to influence behavior
behaviors can increase fitness and reproductive success
behaviors can serve as signals to other organisms
Communication
Remember this??
Quorum sensing in bacteria:
bacteria use chemical signals to "talk" to each other and regulate population density
A new example...
Bee waggle dances:
And another...
Scent Marking in Mammals
Behaviors can be either:
innate: inborn behaviors that are inherited through genetics (not learned) and are not modified by experience
ex: reflexes; taxis (movement towards or away from stimulus)
learned: behaviors that must be acquired through observation or experience and can be modified to suit environmental conditions
ex: habituation (learning to ignore stimulus); conditioning (association of one stimulus to another)
NOT an animal
scout honeybees search out new food sources and return to hive to perform "waggle dance" to communicate direction, distance, and odor of food to forager bees
many mammals urinate in strategic spots to advertise their territory to others, communicate social status, or identify ownership
in many species, females select a mate based on urine scent and strength...explain in terms of evolution
sexual selection: individuals with certain inherited traits are more likely to mate than others
sexual dimorphism: difference in physical characteristics between sexes (caused by sexual selection)
natural selection favors innate and learned behaviors to increase survival and reproduction
cooperative behavior tends to increase fitness of individuals and survival of population
communication is vital to natural selection
Foraging Behavior
when searching for food, organisms' behaviors are a compromise between investment of time/energy and profit from resources (calories)
Schooling Behavior
traveling together as a large group reduces risk from predators, increases foraging success, and increases likelihood of finding a mate
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