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Grammar Review

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by

Letitia Arney

on 24 October 2014

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Transcript of Grammar Review


Person, Place, Thing, or Idea

Person, Place, and Thing are all concrete nouns: something you can see, taste, touch, feel, hear- you know the 5 senses
Examples: Mrs. Arney, Clinton High School, and table

Idea is an abstract noun- it is a thought or a belief
Examples: freedom, love, hope, hate, fear, peace, etc...

A word that takes the place of a noun, a group of words acting as a noun, or another pronoun.

The word the pronoun replaces is the antecedent.
Different forms of a Noun and Examples:

Singular
: boy, branch, story, hoof, woman

Plural
: boys, branches, stories, hooves, women

Possessive
: Susie's calculator, Lynn's chair, Wilsons' newspaper

Compound
: music box, great-grandfather, bedroom

Common
: cats, spirit, tomatoes

Proper
: Rocky Mountains, Colorado, Special Olympics

Collective
: family, class, crew, band

Types of Pronouns and Examples:
Singular
Plural
First Person
Second Person
Third Person
I, me
you
he, him, she, her, it
we, us
you
they, them
Personal:
Possessive:
First Person

Second Person


Third Person
Singular
Plural
my, mine

your, yours

his
her, hers
its
our, ours

your, yours

their, theirs
Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns
First Person


Second Person


Third Person
Singular
Plural
myself


yourself


himself
herself
itself
ourselves


yourselves


themselves
Reflexive Pronouns
This pronoun refers back to the subject of the sentence or clause and indicates that the same person or thing is involved. A reflexive pronoun adds information to a sentence
Example
:

We consider
ourselves
lucky to have avoided the tornado.

In stage makeup, I don't even look like
myself
.
Intensive Pronouns
This pronoun add emphasis to another noun or pronoun. It does not add information to a sentence. If the intensive pronoun is omitted, the meaning of the sentence will still be the same.
I
myself
balanced the checkbook

I balanced the checkbook
myself
Examples
:
Demonstrative Pronouns
Singular


Plural
this that


these those
This
is your new toothbrush

Let me do
that
for you

Are
these
the cookies you like so well?

I think I will take
those
Examples:
Interrogative Pronouns
Who? Whom? Whose?

Whoever? Whomever? Whatever?

Which? Whichever? What?
Examples:
Who
made this delicious salad dressing?

Whom
are you expecting?

Whose
are these cute Earrings?
Relative Pronouns
who whoever which that
whom whomever whose what
whichever whatever
Examples:
This pronoun points out specific persons, places, or things
This pronoun is used to form questions
This pronoun is used to begin a special subject-verb word group called a subordinate clause
Rhonda held out paper cups of water to the marathon runners,
who
grabbed them eagerly.

The novel
that
she wrote is on the best-seller list.
Pronouns
Nouns
Adjectives
Indefinite Pronouns
This type of pronoun refers to a person, a place, a thing, or an ides in a more general way than a noun
all both everything nobody others
another each few none several
any either many no one some
anybody enough most nothing somebody
anyone everybody much one someone
anything everyone neither other something
Examples:
Do you know
anyone
in your class?

Several
have submitted applications for college.

The group responsible for posters reported that
none
were ready.
The Eight Parts of Speech
A word that modifies (changes or further describes) a noun or a pronoun by limiting its meaning.
What kind?
Which one?
How many?
How much?
Blue
scarf
Artistic
license
That
attitude
Second
try
Thirty
pages
Several
improvements
Any
trouble
No
mayonnaise
Adjectives that Compare
Positive Comparative Superlative
Slow Slower Slowest
Lucky Luckier Luckiest
Strenuous More Strenuous Most Strenuous
Good/Well Better Best
Bad Worse Worst
The Articles
A
ball
An
apple
Indefinite Article: names items that are not specific
Definite Article: names specific items
The
boy with
the
ball
*Articles are
always
attached to nouns
Proper Adjectives
A proper adjective is formed when a proper noun modifies another noun.
Examples:
We attended the
Shakespearean
Drama Festival.

The
Texan
barbeque was a success.

The
Victorian
Era in England lasted from 1837 to 1901.
Verbs
A verb is a word that expresses
action
or
state of being
and is necessary to make a statement
Action Verbs
An action verb tells what what someone or something is doing.
Example:
Physical action: The chorus
sang
the new song.

Mental action: The chorus
liked
the new song.
Transitive Verbs
Examples:
She
spoke
the words of the challenge.

The author
summarized
his story.
A transitive verb is followed by a word that answers the questions whom? or what? receives the action
Intransitive Verbs
An intransitive verb is
not
followed by words that answer the question whom? or what? receives the action. They are capable of standing on their own fully completing the sentence.
Examples:
The actor
winked
.
She
spoke
.
Linking Verbs
A linking verb links, or joins, the subject of a sentence (often a noun or pronoun) with a noun, a pronoun, or an adjective that identifies or describes the subject. A linking verb
does not
show action.
*
Be
in all its forms is the most commonly used linking verb. Forms of be include
am
,
is, are, was, were, will be, has been, and was being.
Examples:
That tailor
is
an expert.

This spring
has been
rainy
Other Linking Verbs
appear grow seem stay
become look smell taste
feel remain sound turn
Example:
This lemonade
tastes
sour.
Verb Phrases
The verb in a sentence may consist of more than one word. The words that accompany the main verb are called
auxiliary
, or helping,
verbs
.

A
verb phrase
consists of main verb and all its auxiliary, or helping, verbs.
Examples:
We
had expected
the letter for days.

You
should exercise
daily.
Auxiliary Verbs
Forms of be:
am, is, are, was, were, being, been

Forms of have:
has, have, had, having

Other:
can, could, do, does, did, may, might, shall, should, must, will, would
Adverbs
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb by making its meaning more specific.
Questions to use to help you to determine if you have an adverb:
When? Where? How?
To what degree?
When: I got your letter
yesterday
.

Where: The wagon train headed
west
.

How: Play this section
softly
and
sweetly
.

To what degree: This railing is
dangerously
rickety.
Examples of Adverbs
Negative words as adverbs
The word
not
and the contraction
n't
are adverbs. Certain adverbs of
time
,
place
, and
degree
also have negative meanings.
Examples:
The color did
n't
fade.

That dye
hardly ever
fades.

If correctly set, this dye
never
fades.

The tints can
barely
be distinguished.

There are
no
undyed patches.

We can
not
complain about the color.
Adverbs that compare
Positive Comparative Superlative
sat near sat nearer sat nearest

talks slowly talks more slowly talks most slowly

dances well dances better dances best

writes badly writes worse writes worst

draws beautifully draws more beautifully draws most
beautifully

looks far looks farther looks farthest

left early left earlier left earliest
Prepositions
A preposition is a word that shows the
relationship
of a noun or a pronoun to another word in a sentence.
Examples:
The mother
of
the kitten lives here.
*
of
shows the relationship of
mother
to
kitten
.
I will see you
after
work.
*after expresses a time relationship of when I will see you.
Commonly Used Prepositions
aboard
about
above
across
after
against
along
amid
among
around
as
at
before
behind
below
beneath
beside
besides
between
beyond
but (meaning except)
by
concerning
despite
down
during
except
excepting
for
from

in
inside
into
ike
near
of
off
on
onto
opposite
out
outside
over
past
pending
regarding
respecting
since
through
throughout
to
toward
under
underneath
until
up
upon
with
within
without
Compound Prepositions
according to
ahead of
along with
apart from
aside from
as to
because of
by means of
except for
in addition to
in spite of
instead of
next to
on account of
on top of
out of
owing to
A preposition made up of more than one word
Prepositional Phrases
A group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or a pronoun, which is called the object of the preposition.
Example:
Jorge and Melanie went
to the fair
.
Conjunctions
Three types of conjunctions: Coordinating, Correlative and Subbordinating
Coordinating Conjunctions
F
: for
A
: and
N
: nor
B
: but
O
: or
Y
: yet
S
: so
A coordinating conjunction joins words or groups of words that have equal grammatical weight in a sentence.
Correlative Conjunctions
The cor
relative
conjunctions work in pairs to join words and groups of words of equal grammatical weight in a sentence.
both...and
either....or
just....as
neither....nor
not only....but (also)
whether....or
Both
Kim
and
I must test the software.
Interjections
A word or word phrase that expresses emotion or exclamation. An interjection has no grammatical connection to other words in the sentence and is set off from the other words by an exclamation point or a comma.
Surprise:
Oh, my
! I had no idea.
Delight:
Ah
, that's good!
Confusion:
Good grief
! Is that true?
Pain:
Ouch
! That hurts!
Joy:
Wow
! This is super!
Subject
Predicate
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