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Alprazolam

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by

Esraa Saeed

on 14 April 2015

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Transcript of Alprazolam

Absorption
Uses and Side effects
Interactions
Alprazolam
Alprazolam
Pharmacological
Class:


Benzodiazepines

Generic Name:

Alprazolam

Trade names:
Xanax


Pharmacodynamics
Benzodiazepines cause a
dose-related CNS depressant activity by binding at stereo specific
receptors
Pharmacokinetics
Distribution
In vitro, alprazolam is
bound (80%) to human
serum protein.
Metabolism
Elimination
Metabolized into
a-benzophenone

Alprazolam and its metabolites
are excreted primarily in the
urine.
Mechanism
of Action
Binding to GABA-A receptor
Enhancing the GABA inhibitory effect
Increases neuronal
membrane permeability to chloride ions
Dose and Regimen
Therapy should be initiated at a low dose to minimize the risk of adverse responses.
Adult dose: 0.25-0.5 (mg) 3 times a day.
Over dose

When it is combined with other central nervous system depressants, such as opiates or alcohol.
• Drowsiness
• Low blood pressure
• Shallow breathing
• Impaired motor function
• Muscle weakness
Alprazolam withdrawal
Anxiety
Fatigue
B.P
Abdominal
cramps
PAWS
So how to withdraw Alprazolam safely?
Reducing medication slowly over a period of eight weeksover
Pregnancy and Lactating
Alprazolam cross the placenta
Neonatal flaccidity and respiratory problems have been reported in children born of mothers who have been receiving Alprazolam.
with Other CNS Depressants
Causes additive CNS depressaning effects when co-administered with other psychotropic medications :
anticonvulsants
,
antihistaminics
,
ethanol
.
Drugs affecting Cytochrime P453A enzymes
• Azole antifungal agents
• Cimetidine
• Fluvoxamine

They increase plasma alprazolam concentrations

HIV protease inhibitors
Low doses of ritonavir resulted in a large impairment of alprazolam clearance
Closed-Angle Glaucoma
They have very rarely been associated with increased intraocular pressure.
Renal/Liver Disease
Alprazolam metabolized by the liver, and the metabolites are excreted in the urine.
R
apidly absorbed with nearly complete bioavailability.

The plasma half-life has ranged from
7

to

22

hours.


In obese patients

---> Half-life may be prolonged.

a-hydroxyalprazolam
Full transcript