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Blood Types

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by

Joseph Han

on 19 November 2013

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Transcript of Blood Types

Eryhroblastosis fetalis
Erythroblastosis
- Production of Erythroblasts (immature red blood cells)
Fetalis
- Fetus
Part 3
Problems Associated with Maternal & Fetal Blood Types
Blood Types

How are Blood Types Determined?
Eight different blood types: A+, A-, B+, B-, AB+, AB-, O+ and O-
Blood type is inherited
determined by antigens in RBCs and antibodies in plasma
ABO and Rh are the main blood group systems
ABO -> Four blood groups: A, B, AB and O
Rh (rhesus) factor determines whether blood is positive or negative
Differences Between Blood Types
Some people have RBCs with...
A antigens
B antigens
Both A and B antigens
Neither the A or B antigen
Rh factor: D antigen
Testing Blood Types
Usually involves taking a blood sample from a blood vessel in your arm
By elbow or wrist, where the veins are relatively close to the surface
A tourniquet (tight band) is usually put around your upper arm
Temporarily slows down the flow of blood out of the arm, causing the vein to swell with blood
A needle attached to a syringe or to a special blood collecting container is pushed into the vein
The syringe is used to draw out a sample of blood
Importance of Blood Tests
Why blood tests are done and important

Before a person gets a blood transfusion.

Before a person donates blood.

Before a person donates an organ for transplantation.

Before surgery.

When a woman is planning to become pregnant for first becomes pregnant.

To show whether two people could be blood relatives.

To check the identify of a person suspected of committing a crime.


Blood Types
Part 1
Difference between blood types
Part 2
How to test for various Blood Types


Part 3
Problems associated with maternal and fetal blood types and how this can be solved
Group
A
can donate blood to Group
A
and
AB
Group
B
can donate blood to Group
B
and
AB
Group
AB
can donate blood to other Group
AB
's but may receive blood from anybody (
universal receiver
)
Generally only Rh negative blood can be given to Rh-negative patients and Rh-positive patients can receive either Rh positive/negative blood
O

A

B

AB
O

A

B

AB
Group
O
can donate blood to anybody
Group
O
is the
universal donor
Recipient
Donor
VIDEO: Blood Types
PART 1
Difference Between Blood Types
Blood Transfusions
Maternal and Fetal Blood Types
Problems caused by mother and baby's difference in blood types
Two distinct blood types mix during miscarriage, birth, trauma
Results ABO or Rh incompatibility
ABO & Rh incompatibility lead to
Hemolytic Disease

of the Newborn(HDN)
also called
Erythroblastosis
What is Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (Erythroblastosis Fetalis)?
Hemolysis
- destruction of red blood cells
Hemolytic
Disease
- Disease caused by the destruction of red blood cells
ABO
and
Rh
Incompatibility
Caused by the mix of mismatching blood types between mother and baby
Signals mother's immune system to attack fetal red blood cells
Results in
Hemolytic
(destruction of RBCs)
Anemia
of the baby
Anemia- Blood disorder due to decreased in red blood cells
FACTS
ABO Incompatibility
Occurs when mother with blood type O pregnant with a baby with A, B, or AB blood type
Anti-A and anti-B antibodies attack fetal RBCs
Rh Incompatibility
Caused by mother's Rh- and father's Rh+, resulting in Rh- baby
Baby's Rh+ RBCs are
foreign
to mother's Rh negative immune system
Baby's Rh+ RBCs are destroyed by antibodies
Rh sensitization
Rh incompatibility disease
VS
ABO incompatibility disease
Rh incompatibility disease
ABO incompatibility disease
>AB- is the most rare
More mild during first pregnancy
More severe in future pregnancy
Leads to severe anemia
Serious Hemolytic disease
Doesn't become more severe after first pregnancy
Leads to mild to moderate anemia
Mild Hemolytic disease
Causes & Symptoms of HDN
>Specific blood types are more common
in certain countries
Affects blood's ability to transport oxygen
Trobules with Breathing
Hyperbilirubinemia
- formation of bilirubin that builds up in baby's blood and tissues, resulting in
jaundice(yellowing of baby's skin)
Erythroblastosis
- Production of immature red blood cells (Erythroblasts), resulting in enlargement of baby's organs
Hydrops fetalis
- Swelling of the baby's body (Edema) due to anemia, resulting in heart failure
Treatment for HDN

During Pregnancy
Early Delivery
if lungs are developed, to prevent worsening of disease
Blood Transfusion
of RBCs into fetal circulation by needle going through mother's uterus into the abdominal cavity or umbilical vein of fetus
>Its a myth that your blood type tells
about your personality
type A=calm and trustworthy, type B=creative and excitable, type O=leader and AB=thoughtful and emotional
Treatment for HDN
After Birth
Mechanical breathing machine

Blood transfusion by: -Exchange Transfusion-
replace damaged RBCs with new, transfused blood -
Intravenous Therapy
- blood transfused directly into veins to increase blood pressure
>Animals have different blood types than humans
>0- blood is considered the universal donor
>Type AB+ is considered the universal donor
HISTORY
& DISCOVERY OF THE BLOOD TYPES
>Discovered by Karl Landsteiner in 1901
>discovered the first 3 blood types: A, B, C (later named o)
REVIEW QUIZ
PART 1
Question 1
Question 2

PART 2
PART 3
Question 3

Question 1
HDN, a disease caused by blood incompatibility between the mother and a baby stands for:
A. Hemorrhage Disease of the Newborn
B. Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn
C. Hemoglobin Disease of the Newborn
D. Hepatic Disease of the Newborn
Question 2
What does Erythroblastosis mean??
A. Yellowing of the baby's skin caused by formation of bilirubin

B. Production of immature red blood cells by the fetus

C. Swelling of the baby's body

D. Destruction of fetal red blood cells
Question 3
Which of the following is
NOT
a treatment for HDN?
A. Blood Transfusion

B. Early delivery (during pregnancy)

C. Increasing bilirubin level of the baby

D. Use of mechanical breathing machine (after birth)
>Gathered blood samples from different people and cross tested the sera (serum) and red cells
>his experiment revealed that the blood of one person caused the blood of others to clump
>he identified two antibody classes (called anti-A and anti-B)
>the experiment revealed that the person receiving the blood transfusion has antibodies against the donor blood cells
>also contributed to the discovery of the rhesus factor (antigen found on the red blood cells)
True or False: Rh negative blood can be given to an Rh-negative patient.


a) True b) False



What type of antibodies are present in the blood plasma of someone that belongs to blood group AB?

a) anti-A antibodies b) anti-B antibodies
c) both are present d) neither are present

Q: Agglutination or blood clumping is a result of:

a) the absence of the Rh factor
b) group A giving blood to group AB
c) mixing incompatible blood
d) none of the above

What is one reason why blood tests are done?

Which of the following is the universal blood donor for the ABO system?
A.
Blood group A

B.
Blood group B

C.
Blood Group O

D.
Blood Group AB
Question 2
Question 1
Question 3
What is Rh Sensitization during Pregnancy?
A.

Mother(Rh -)'s Immune System response against the baby's Rh + red blood cells

B.

Baby(Rh+)'s Immune System response against the mother's Rh - red blood cells

C.

Mother with blood group O producing Antibodies against A, B, and AB red blood cells

D.

Both A and B are correct
By: Joseph, Kriselda, Puneet & Suwan
THE END
Full transcript