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Carbon Dioxide Presentation
Transcript of Carbon Dioxide Presentation
Oxygen has a charge of 2- http://www.avon-chemistry.com/lewis_dot_9.jpg http://www.avon-chemistry.com/lewis_dot_10.jpg C O O The partial charges in Carbon Dioxide are shown below... These positive and negative charges help to let one know the direction the dipole arrow should go. C O O Where the positive charged atom is, the vertical line on the dipole arrow is. This resembles a +, which means this is where a positively charged atom is located. The end of a dipole arrow is where the the negatively charged atoms are located. The scientific way to name the atoms and ions Electron Configurations of Carbon and Oxygen Atoms: Ions: Carbon: 1s^2 2s^2 2p^2 Oxygen: 1s^2 2s^2 2p^4 O2-: 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 Hybridization Carbon Dioxide has a hybridization of sp The reason this is, is because all linear shapes have the hybridization of sp. There are two effective pairs so the numbers in s^1 and p^1 have to equal 2 to be a correct hybridization. They do, so the hybridization is correct. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/64/Carbon-dioxide-crystal-3D-vdW.png/220px-Carbon-dioxide-crystal-3D-vdW.png http://0.tqn.com/d/chemistry/1/0/q/p/Sodium-chloride-3D-ionic.jpg Why do these look different? The reason that these two molecules look different is because the radius in both molecules is different. The molecules try to stack as close to each other as they can, but the radius effects that. In NaCl, the radius makes is so the molecules can stack almost in a perfect cube. In CO2, the radius has the molecules stack diagonally and not right next to each other like in NaCl. There is still a cube like shape, just not a perfect cube. NaCl CO2 These two pictures also show the state of the molecules as a solid. NaCl is very packed together and can hold its structure more solidly. CO2 has a very weak structure where the molecules are barely touching each other which means it can easily be broken. This is why dry ice "smokes" and becomes a gas when there is a change in temperature, because bonds are breaking. The stronger the solid, the stronger the lattice energy which means NaCl has a higher lattice energy than CO2. Now that we know what it is, how? Why? Where? How is Carbon Dioxide used? Freezes Food because in solid form it is dry ice
In fire extinguishers Carbon dioxide cools and isolates the air, stopping the fire.
Carbonation in sodas by pressure building up making the soda taste good
Breathing and surgery in hospitals
Propellant in paintball guns making the paintballs shoot far distances
Protective gas when welding Why is it important? Plants make their sugar, which is like their food, out of Carbon Dioxide that is in the atmosphere. Without CO2 the plants would die and then the animals would die and the world would have nothing left on it but dead bodies. Where is it found? Carbon Dioxide is found in our bodies and in the atmosphere. In our bodies CO2 is in our lungs, which we breath out and is also around our blood, protecting the pH levels to keep our body healthy. How is it made? When living things breathe out they are breathing out CO2 into the atmosphere which has been in their body creating carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Also, when things decompose they give off CO2 which is also creates carbon dioxide for the atmosphere. The Lewis Structure and Resonance Form Lewis Structure for Carbon Dioxide With the structure of CO2, there is a resonance structure that is more likely to occur in nature. Consisting of a single bond and a triple bond is more likely in nature because it gives the CO2 more opportunities to bond happily. Exceeds Octet? As with most things in life, there will always be some sort of rules or exceptions.
When it comes to electrons,there is a rule to how many spots are available in each valance shell.
Once The shells gets electrons in the "d"orbital, an exception is allowed.
Its anything in the third row or lower (lower on the periodic table) that can exceed the octet rule. The d orbital can exceed its valence number and still be stable. (So anything with 20 electrons or more) Carbon Dioxide is covalently bonded. Despite its electronegativity which is .5 and falls in the polar covalent category. CO2 has two lines of symmetry shown below and symmetry overrules electronegativity. C O O http://www.myaga.me/sparkling-water/co2-refills/co2-how-is-it-used http://carbondioxideyo.weebly.com/where-is-co2-found.html http://www.dennerle.eu/global/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=177&Itemid=103&lang=en http://www.talktalk.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/mo029941.html O C O O C O O has 6 valence and 5 electrons being used making a +1 charge. C has 4 valence and 4 used to make zero. and the other O has 6 valence and 7 used giving it +1. Add all of these numbers together and you get a charge of zero overall making this the resonance structure found in nature. Bonds The types of bonds can be: A single bond. It is the longest and weakest bond. A double bond. It isnt hte longest or the shortest. Its stronger than a single, but not as strong as a triple. A triple bond. Its the shortest and strongest bond.