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The Endocrine System

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Iman Qureshi

on 21 February 2015

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Transcript of The Endocrine System

The Endocrine System
by Seemab Iman Shagufta Faiza and Sadaf
what is the endocrine system?
The endocrine system is made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones which are the chemical substances produced in the body regulating the activity of cells or organs. These hormones regulate the body's growth, metabolism, sexual development and function. The hormones are released into the bloodstream and may affect one or several organs throughout the body.
Examples of the endocrine glands are the pituitary gland, thyroid gland and parathyroid gland.
parathyroid gland
pituitary Gland
also called Hypophysis Cerebri
Sella Turcica is a saddle shaped
depression which holds the pituitary gland
did you know?
the pituitary gland is actually two fused glands. they merge together during embryonic development!

Pituitary Gland: Lobes
1. Anterior lobe
the anterior lobe is often referred to as the master gland because in addition to producing primary hormones, it also produces the trophic hormones. The anterior lobes, in total, secretes six hormones.
pituitary gland relations
■■ Anteriorly: The sphenoid sinus
Median Lobe (pars intermedia) consists of basophillic cells
Superiorly: The diaphragma sellae, which has a central aperture that allows the passage of the infundibulum. The diaphragma sellae separates the anterior lobe from the optic chiasma.
Posteriorly: The dorsum sellae, the basilar artery, and the pons

Laterally: The cavernous sinus
Inferiorly: The body of the sphenoid, with its sphenoid air sinuses
3. posterior lobe
it is the back portion of pituitary gland. It secretes two hormones: oxytocin and vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone).
2. Pars Intermedia
it is the median lobe of the pituitary gland. It consists of basophilic cells and it secretes melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH).
Hormones secreted by Pituitary Gland
blood supply of pituitary gland
Arterial Supply:
The arteries are derived from the superior and inferior hypophyseal arteries which are branches of the internal carotid artery.
The veins drain into the intercavernous sinuses.
Venous Supply:

functions
These 4 glands produce parathyroid hormone (PTH), which helps to maintain calcium homeostasis by acting on the renal tubule as well as calcium stores in the skeletal system and by acting indirectly on the gastrointestinal tract through the activation of vitamin D.
The parathyroid glands have a distinct, encapsulated, smooth surface that differs from the thyroid gland, which is has a more lobular surface, and lymph nodes, which are more pitted in appearance.

The color of the parathyroid glands is typically light brown to tan, which relates to their fat content, vascularity, and percentage of oxyphil cells within the glands.
comparing thyroid and parathyroid gland
The arterial supply
to the parathyroid glands is from the superior and inferior thyroid arteries.
The venous drainage
is into the superior, middle, and inferior thyroid veins
blood supply
Lymph Drainage of the parathyroid gland

Deep cervical and paratracheal lymph nodes.
nerve supply
Superior or middle cervical sympathetic ganglia.
The pituitary gland is a small, pea size oval structure attached to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum. The gland is well protected by virtue of its location in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. Because the hormones produced by the gland influence the activities of many other endocrine glands, the hypophysis cerebri is often referred to as the master endocrine gland. For this reason, it is vital to life. The pituitary gland is divided into an anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and a posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). The anterior lobe is subdivided into the pars anterior (sometimes called the pars distalis) and the pars intermedia. A projection from the pars anterior, the pars tuberalis, extends up along the anterior and lateral surfaces of the pituitary stalk.
thyroid gland
It is a large ductless gland in the neck that secretes hormones regulating growth and development. The thyroid gland consists of right and left lobes connected by a narrow isthmus. It is a vascular organ surrounded by a sheath derived from the pretracheal fascia. The sheath attaches the gland to the larynx and the trachea. Each lobe is pear shaped, with its apex being directed upward as far as the oblique line on the lamina of the thyroid cartilage; its base lies below at the level of the fourth or fifth tracheal ring.
relations of the thyroid gland
Medially: The larynx, the trachea, the pharynx, and the esophagus
Anterolaterally: The sternothyroid, the omohyoid, the sternohyoid, and the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle
Posterolaterally: The carotid sheath with the common carotid artery, the internal jugular vein, and the vagus nerve
trachea
blood supply of thyroid gland
Arterial Supply
The arteries to the thyroid gland are the superior thyroid artery and the inferior thyroid artery. The arteries anastomose profusely with one another over the surface of the gland. The superior thyroid artery, a branch of the external carotid artery, descends to the upper pole of each lobe, accompanied by the external laryngeal nerve.
The inferior thyroid artery (a branch of the thyrocervical trunk) ascends behind the gland to the level of the cricoid cartilage. It then turns medially and downward to reach the posterior border of the gland.
Blood supply of thyroid gland cont'd
Venous Supply
The veins from the thyroid gland drain into the internal jugular vein; the middle thyroid, which drains into the internal jugular vein; and the inferior thyroid. The inferior thyroid veins of the two sides anastomose with one another as they descend in front of the trachea. They drain into the left brachiocephalic vein in the thorax.

The thyroidea ima artery, if present, may arise from the the arch of the aorta. It ascends in front of the trachea to the isthmus.
lymph drainage of thyroid gland
The lymph from the thyroid gland drains mainly laterally into the deep cervical lymph nodes. A few lymph vessels descend to the paratracheal nodes.
nerve supply
Thyroid gland's nerve supply is from superior, middle, and inferior cervical sympathetic ganglia.
Functions of Thyroid Gland
There are 3 thyroid hormones thyroxine (T3) and triiodothyronine (T4) and calcitonin. calcitonin is produced by the parafollicular cells of thyroid gland
The parathyroid glands are ovoid bodies measuring about 6 mm long in their greatest diameter. Parathyroid glands are present at the back of the thyroid gland. They are four total parathyroid glands:
The two superior parathyroid glands are more constant in position and lie at the level of the middle of the posterior border of the thyroid gland.
The two inferior parathyroid glands usually lie close to the inferior ends of the thyroid gland. They may lie within the fascial sheath or outside the fascial sheath. Sometimes, they are found some distance caudal (posterior) to the thyroid gland, in association with the inferior thyroid veins, or they may even reside in the superior mediastinum in the thorax.
APPLIED ANATOMY OF THYROID GLAND
The most common thyroid problems involve abnormal production of thyroid hormones. Too much thyroid hormone results in a condition known as
hyperthyroidism
. Insufficient hormone production leads to
hypothyroidism
.
Graves' disease:
The production of too much thyroid hormone.
Toxic adenomas:
Nodules develop in the thyroid gland and begin to secrete thyroid hormones, upsetting the body's chemical balance; some goiters may contain several of these nodules.
Subacute thyroiditis
: Inflammation of the thyroid that causes the gland to "leak" excess hormones, resulting in temporary hyperthyroidism that generally lasts a few weeks but may persist for months
hyperthyroidism:
hypothyroidism:
It involves underproduction of thyroid hormones. Since your body's energy production requires certain amounts of thyroid hormones, a drop in hormone production leads to lower energy levels.
Causes of hypothyroidism include:
Hashimoto's thyroiditis:

In this autoimmune disorder, the body attacks thyroid tissue. The tissue eventually dies and stops producing hormones.
Removal of the thyroid gland:

The thyroid may have been surgically removed or chemically destroyed.
applied anatomy of parathyroid gland
Applied anatomy of pituitary
Gigantism (Acromagely)
This syndrome is caused by pituitary tumors on the growth hormone secreting cells of the pituitary gland. It includes abnormal development of hands, feet, jaw etc.
Cushing's Disease
This syndrome is caused by tumors on the ACTH secreting cells of the pituitary gland. Patients with this problem develop fat deposits in strange places, scarring of the skin along the belly that look striated, pimples in adults, high blood pressure and elevated body temperature. These tumors are usually so small that the surgeon might have a difficult time finding it in the gland during surgery.
Dwarfism
This syndrome is an abnormality, usually of a small body physique. It is caused by under secretion of the growth hormone.
Richard Kiel (James Bond)
Peter Dinklage - Games of Thrones
DID YOU KNOW?
There are 35 million pituitary tumors that need to be surgically removed per year. This includes tumors that are large and tumors that over-produce hormones.
Parathyroid Tumor:
Over activity of one or more of the parathyroid glands will cause a potentially serious calcium imbalance. This is called
hyperparathyroidism
.
Tumor will may have the size of grape or walnut.
Bad parathyroid gland will form tumor eventually causing osteoporosis.
Severe osteoporosis will lead to fracture.
Unremoved tumor will increase the risk of other cancers
More calcium may clog the arteries and veins
parathyroid tumors take away the joy of life

There is no other disease that is so easily cured which has such a tremendous impact on a patient's health and their quality of life
Interesting!
hypothalamus
The hypothalamus is located in the lower central part of the brain.
it secretes hormones that stimulate or suppress the release of hormones in the pituitary gland.
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