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Water Erosion

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by

Rocky Chiu

on 23 February 2011

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Transcript of Water Erosion

BY CHARLES AND ROCKY Water Erosion Run-off is the water that moves over Earth's surface Process of erosion Moving water is Earth's major agent of erosion. Run-off depends on five main factors. Precipation and rainfall cause splash erosion. Unsaturated water flows over the land through sheet erosion, and is called run-off. Amount of precipitation Vegetation Soil types Shape of land Use of land For instance:

75 cm total precipitation

53 cm returns to atmosphere through evaporation

22 cm returns to oceans through run-off

Less than .25 cm remains in the ground Run-off causes more erosion, therefore any factors reducing run-off also decreases erosion Shaping the land Rills
Run-off travels downhill due to gravity, and forms tiny grooves in the soil Gullies
A large groove or channel in which run-off runs after a rainstorm. Streams
Larger channels or gullies which continually flow and rarely dry up. They combine to form rivers. Tributary
Streams or rivers that flow into larger channels of water. River Erosion Waterfalls Flood Plain
On more gently sloping land, a river spreads to form a wide river valley. Meanders
As water flows through easily eroded sediment, it forms a bend or curve. Oxbow lakes
As meanders are blocked off by sediment carried by water during a flood, it seperates from the rest of the river to form curved stretch of water. River Deposits Alluvial Fans
The water slows down as it leaves a mountain valley, and sediments carried by the water fall to produce a sloping wide deposit shaped as a fan. Deltas
As a river flows into an ocean or lake, deposited sediments may build up landforms known as deltas, which can be a variety of shapes. Soil
During floods, sediments carried by the river travel onto floodplains, and remain as new, fertile soil when the water retreats. Bluffs
As flood plains are eroded, cliffs are created along the edge of the plain. Ground Water Stalactites
A deposit of calcite that hangs from the ceiling, formed when carbon dioxide is released from a solution of water and carbonic acid. Stalagmites
A cone-shaped deposit on the ground formed by slow dripping. Karst Topography Sinkholes
A depression formed when roofs of caves or caverns collapse due to erosion of the underlying limestone. The term that geologists use for underground water that has soaked into the ground through cracks or layers of permeable rock. A region where sinkholes are common. ther

facts: Impacts on society Loss of productive farmland

Underming of structure

Washing away lanes and roads Prevention No actual method of preventing

Nature: plant growth, soil, both decrease water erosion The start of the water erosion process, from precipitation to run-off. As river erodes, it creates many different physical features. As rivers exit mountain ranges, deposition create a variety of landforms. Underground caves are eroded away by water, and contains many unique features.
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