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Human Cloning

Bioethics proyect Santiago Martinez & Jorge A. Salgado
by

Santiago Martinez

on 2 December 2010

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Transcript of Human Cloning

HUMAN CLONING Jorge Salgado Santiago Martinez What is it? A clone is an identical genetic copy of another organism or part (organs, muscle, tissue, bone, etc) of said organism through the manipulation of DNA. How does it work? Cloning consists of a quite simple procedure. The cells from organism to be cloned (donor) are extracted. The cells are usually skin cells. The cell's are placed in an egg cell. The egg
has it's nucleus removed in order to read the
information from the donor's cell and create the
clone. The newly formed embryo is then given a small electrical shock in order to begin reproducing. Once the embryo has become a blastocyst, it is embedded into the mother (surrogate). A blastocyst is a cellular mass that begins to forms early in the development of the embryo. The newborn offspring is an identical genetic copy of the donor Types of cloning DNA Reproductive Therapeutic Cloning performed for the purpoce of medical treatment or research. The egg in this procedure is used for stem cells. Cloning performed for the purpose of creating an identical copy of the donor. The embryo is placed in a surrogate when it is born, it is an exact copy of the original organism (AKA Molecular or Artificial Gene) Cloning performed for obtaining copies of either a single DNA fragment or a whole fragment through in vitro manipulation. It is also possible to obtain individual genes, and DNA sequences Ethical Dilemma CON PRO Clones and cloned body parts can be used as a life support or backup when needed. Fertility Problems: In case a woman is infertile or has other fetility problems. She can be given the cloned embryo and have a baby. New-borns genes can be manipulated thus having the desired traits and qualities Creating identical genes decrease genetic diversity which in turn weakens diversity and our ability to adapt Gene manipulation: Despite cloning provides us with the manipulation of traits and genes, it also allows the possibility of deliberate manipulation and give unwanted traits. Organ cloning might result in human miscunduct (ex: organ selling (legal and illegal) for this purpose) Costs and availability: Any cloning procedure might be expensive and in some cases not available to those with either financial or social problems. Cloning weakens our value of human life. Man and life is a now man-made and might be viewed as something that is designed and engineered The act of creating and duplicating life is viewed by many as man acting as God. Debate whether a clone should be considered as being a real human or a man-made creation Cloning has a high fail rate (95%) which results in embryo's used for the procedure dying and unnecessary death. Deformities and mutations in the clone similar to those found in imbreeding are also a possibility. Cloning provides a lot of possibilities for research. Scientists can use clones, cloned bodyparts and genes to understand compositions in genes and how they affect the traits, qualities and structure of the human body. Devaluation of clones in comparison to natural humans. Cloned children might be raised in the shadow of their donor which might bring future social and psychological problems in their development The situation of having an identical copy of one's self might diminish our sense of uniqueness and individuality Views According to colombian law, the act of human cloning is illegal. The 24 of July of 2000 the law number 599 was created. This law created new articles on genetic manipulation. Article 133 of the Colombian penal code says that human duplication (those who would be creating identical human beings by cloning or by any other means) would be liable to a 2 to 6 year imprisonment penalty. Article 132 and 134 say that human genes can only be used for research. The church believes that cloning is like playing God and that He is the only one who should create life. They believe that a human clone will have no soul since it is a man-made creation and not one of. Also cloning takes away the unique attributes that God gives us and replaces them with the qualities and trait we desire. On March 8, 2005 the United Nations General Assembly called for all member countries to ban the practice of human cloning and stem cell research. They believe these methods put at risk the value of human life, individuality and dignity Like most countries, human cloning is a highly controversial and debated issue in the United States. The house of representatives have banned human cloning in 1998, 2001, 2004, 2007, and most recently in March 10, 2010. The most recent bill declared the banning of all federal funding. However this included only federal funded and sponsored institutions, which meant that private institutions such as universities could still research cloning. Today 13 states ban human cloning and 3 prohibit funding for this purpose. Santiago I believe that human cloning, if achieved would be an amazing breakthrough in the fields of medicine and science. The clones would take some time getting used to, especially the idea of having an exact copy of you being alive. Nevertheless, they can provide us with the opportunity to study the human genetic code and perhaps find a cure for many diseases. I do not approve clones being used as organ donors. I believe it is cruel that humans have to live to fullfil this purpose when there are willing organ donors. Despite being genetically engineered, they still are humans and should have the same rights as us. Bioethics In my opinion, human cloning sounds very cool but its totally unethical since it has lots of problems. According to religion and to ethics human cloning is wrong and I agree. It is wrong because people shouldnt act like God and to actually clone someone it would require much more technology so that it can clone a human without any mistakes and cloning today is too risky. Jorge Not yet officially achieved Bibliography http://www.geneticsandsociety.org/article.php?id=282
http://www.bioeticaweb.com/content/view/1267/765/lang,es/
http://www.nrlc.org/UN/UNCondemnHumanCloning.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_cloning
http://www.lifeslittlemysteries.com/how-does-cloning-work-0450/
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-human-cloning.htm
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-the-pros-and-cons-of-cloning.htm
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-reproductive-cloning.html
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-therapeutic-cloning.htm
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-dna-cloning.htm
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/pros-and-cons-of-cloning.html
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