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# Physics of Soccer: Momentum & Impulse

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## Imran McGrath

on 5 February 2014

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#### Transcript of Physics of Soccer: Momentum & Impulse

Works Cited
"Impulse & Momentum Summary." The Physics Hypertextbook. 1998–2014 Glenn Elert, n.d. Web. 03 Feb. 2014.

"Momentum Conservation Principle." Momentum Conservation Principle. Physics Classroom, n.d. Web. 03 Feb. 2014.

"Physics of Soccer." Science Classroom. Tangient LLC, n.d. Web.

Singh, Jatinder P. "PHYSICS LAWS AND ANALYSIS OF THE SOCCER BALL." IJITE.net. International Journal in IT and Engineering, n.d. Web. 03 Feb. 2014.

"The Importance of Shin Guards."
The Importance of Shin Guards.
NYSL/Penn State Sports Medicine Newsletter, n.d. Web. 02 Feb. 2014.
Soccer Basics
The most popular sport in the world (also known as football).
The game is played on a grass field.
Each team is allowed to have a maximum of 11 players on the field.
The goal of the game is to get the ball into the other team's net to score a goal.
Players can use any part of their body to score but they can't use their arms and hands (except the goalie).
Impulse-Momentum Theorem
"Any impulse acting on a system changes the system's momentum"

Force*Time=Mass*ΔVelocity

If the time increases, the force must decrease to keep the equation balanced.
Law of Momentum Conservation
"For a collision occurring between object 1 and object 2 in an isolated system, the total momentum of the two objects before the collision is equal to the total momentum of the two objects after the collision."
Law of Momentum Conservation
Physics of Soccer: Momentum & Impulse
"Technique": Hit the ball into the net, not the poles.
When the ball is hit into one of the poles at the edges of the net, it bounces back off- and probably not into the goal. This elastic collision is due to the short time of impact allowing for a greater force.
The net is used to slow (increase) the time of impact with the ball, decreasing the force and allowing the ball to fall gently inside the goal.
Safety: Shin Guards
Shin guards play an important role in protecting the player from direct blows to the shin.
Upon being hit by the foot of another player, the shin guard's fabric and foam backing reduce the time of impact.
As a result, the force of the impact is reduced, saving the player from potential injury.
Shin guards also spread the force over a larger area, reducing the force per square-inch.
Shin guards have been shown to reduce the force of a kick to the leg by 44% to up to 77%.
Technique
Because momentum from the foot is conserved by the ball during the collision, the more mass and velocity the foot has, the more momentum the ball will have after the collision. This is helpful during aggressive shots.
Also, when players pass the ball to each other, they use their feet to decrease the momentum of the ball by absorbing some of the momentum and resisting the ball slowly. This way, they can have more control over the ball.
Safety
The goal is composed of a net, not a solid wall to allow the enormous momentum of the soccer ball to be safely dispersed.
If the goal were a solid wall, the ball would bounce back at the goalie due to the conserved momentum.
The net is able to hold the ball and make its velocity 0m/s, effectively canceling the ball's conserved momentum from the kicker.
Bennett p.1
Geoffrey Yang
Imran McGrath

Momentum and Impulse Refresher
Momentum is defined as the tendency of a moving object to continue moving.
p = m • v
(Momentum = mass • velocity)

Impulse is defined as the “change in momentum”.
I=F • Δt
(Impulse= Force • change in time)

In other words, the total amount of momentum is a constant or unchanging value.
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