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Transcript of Nineteen Eighty-Four
A world where totalitarian dictatorship destroyed human freedoms and human kind.
"I write [a book] because there is some lie that I want to expose, some fact to which I want to draw attention, and my initial concern is to get a hearing."
I have not written a novel for seven years, but I hope to write another fairly soon. It is bound to be a failure, every book is a failure, but I do know with some clarity what kind of book I want to write.
The Publication of _1984_
What exactly did George Orwell fear?
_1984_ was written by George Orwell under the working title of _The Last Man in Europe_.
The book's publishers in both the UK and US where it was simultaneously released moved to change its title for marketing purpose to _1984_.
The book was published in June 1949, 7 months before Orwell's death from tuberculosis.
Fountain Valley High School
Big Brother's Father
(e.g. 1984, V for Vendetta, The Matrix)
Dystopia = Negative Utopia
"Big Brother" has become somewhat ubiquitous—a synonym for abuse of government power, particularly with respect to violating one’s civil liberties.
"Big Brother" in _1984_ refers to a fictional dictator of Oceania.
An imaginary place or state, usually portrayed as existing in a future time, in which the condition of life is extremely bad (from deprivation, oppression, and/or terror.
Present tendencies are carried out to their intensely unpleasant extremes.
Shows the worst human society imaginable to convince readers to avoid any path that might lead to such society degredation.
From Orwell's "Why I Write'
PERSONAL SUFFERING (TB)
BEGINNING OF THE COLD WAR
ENHANCED FEAR OF THE FUTURE
Benito Mussolini's Fascism
Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany
Joseph Stalin’s Communist Soviet Union
Both words were created to contrast utopia, a word coined by Sir Thomas More to describing an ideal place or society. Utopia combined the Greek-derived ou ("no") + topos ("place"). Dystopia combined the dys, Greek word for "bad" or "negative" with topos. Thus, meaning "bad place".
Your understanding of these terms will be assessed.
_1984_ Terms to Know
a government in which one person possessing unlimited political power.
a political or economic theory advocating collective control over production and distribution.
capable of or subject to change or alteration
A kind of writing that ridicules human weakness, vice, or folly in order to bring about social reform. Satires try to persuade the reader to do or believe something—by showing the opposite view as absurd, or even more forcefully, vicious, and inhumane.
Seemingly contradictory statement that may nonetheless be true.
The presentation of something as being smaller, worse, or less important than it actually is.
a form of government in which the political authority (usually an autocratic leader) exercises absolute and centralized control over all aspects of life.
The individual is subordinated to the state, and opposing political and cultural expression is suppressed, especially by coercive measures—censorship and terrorism.
A government in which a small group exercises control (especially for selfish purposes).
"Prince's Super Bowl performance was OK."
Narrator: Omniscient 3rd Person Narrator
Protagonist: Winston Smith
London, England→ Chief city of:
Airstrip One→ 3rd most populous province of:
OCEANIA in the year of 1984
SETTING OF THE NOVEL
TWO POLITICAL EXTREMES
OF OCEANIAN POLITICS:
(OPPONENTS OF THE PARTY)
(leader of the party
INGSOC - English Socialism
Sacred Principles of INGSOC:
Mutability of the past
(leader of the brotherhood, primal traitor)
Target of Two Minutes Hate (propaganda)
Author of "the book" (full of heresies -- unorthodox ideas)
Proles (Proletariats, 85%): vast majority of mindless slaves, used for manual labor
Outer Party (14%): larger group of middle-level functionaries—office holders, kept in line via thought control
Inner Party (1%): small group of brutal leaders.
All aspects of life are regimented and controlled by TELESCREENS
(Picture a 24 hour Skype session with the government.)
NEWSPEAK + DOUBLETHINK
Newspeak: A way the Party retains control over its citizens by making unorthodox thought impossible.
Official language of Oceania
Vocabulary decreases every year
Why do you think Oceania sees no purpose in maintaining a complex language? Why are they dedicated to destructing words?
The power of holding two contradictory beliefs in one’s mind simultaneously, and accepting both of them.
_1984_ Specific Characteristics
These are recurring characteristics in the novel.
Never-ending wars are used to fan the nationalism of the population and to justify the dismal, regimented world that remained.
THE FOUR MINISTRIES
Ministry of Truth: news, entertainment, education, fine arts
Newspeak: Minitrue. The propaganda arm of Oceania's regime. Minitrue controls political literature, the Party organization, and the telescreens.
Winston Smith works for Minitrue, "rectifying" historical records and newspaper articles to make them conform to INGSOC's most recent pronouncements, thus making everything that the Party says true.
Ministry of Peace: war
Newspeak: Minipax. Concerns itself with conducting and perpetuating Oceania's peace through continuous wars.
Ministry of Love: law and order
Newspeak: Miniluv. The agency responsible for the identification, monitoring, arrest, and torture of dissidents, real or imagined. Responsible for making every Party member love the Party.
Ministry of Plenty: responsible for economic affairs
Newspeak: Miniplenty. Responsible for rationing and controlling food and goods.
I want you to be thinking about this throughout the unit.
Was Orwell’s classic novel 1984 prophetic? Consider the rise, fall, and endurance of modern day political regimes that restrict personal freedoms. Write an essay that uses specific textual evidence to support your position.
prophetic - adj. accurately describing or predicting what will happen in the future.