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Growth and Development

Growth/Development
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Alyson Kastner

on 22 November 2016

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Transcript of Growth and Development

The Male Reproductive System
The Male Body
Male sex cells are called sperm
the testes, also known as testicles, are the organs that make sperm and the primary male sex hormone, testosterone
the testes are held by a sac of skin called the scrotum that hangs from the male body
the scrotum regulates the temperature of the testes so that sperm can form correctly
the sperm is then mixed with other fluids, that carry the sperm out of the man's body through the penis
The Path Traveled by Sperm
The sperm is made in structures called seminiferous tubules
The cells in this tubules divide so that each new sperm cell contains half of the man's genes.
Genes are instructions for how a person's body looks and functions
The sperm grows tails, that allow them to swim and reach the sex cells of a woman
Immature sperm cells then move into the epididymis, where they mature
The Path Traveled by Sperm, Cont
When sperm are fully mature, they move into tubes called the vas deferens
The vas deferens runs from each epdidymis, out of the scrotom
The two seminal vesicles are attached to the storage of the vas deferens
The seminal vesicles are glands that produce most of the fluid that carries the sperm down the urethra and out of the penis
This fluid is called semen
The Path Traveled by Sperm, Cont
The sperm then passes through the prostate gland
As the sperm passes through the prostate gland, the prostate gland and Cowper's glands add more fluids to the semen
The urethra is the tube that carries urine and sperm out of the man's body through the penis
After about 2 weeks in the man's body, the sperm break down and are absorbed.
Male Reproductive Problems
Boys and men do not recognize the importance of getting regular medical checkups
Many problems can be treated easily but some do require medical care
Some problems do have symptoms, while other do not. Many of these problems can be found by a doctor during a regular exam.
Caring for the Male Body
Men and boys can protect themselves from reproductive health problems in the following wayS:
take a bath daily and keep skin clean and dry
do not wear damp clothing longer than necessary
always wear protective gear when playing a sport
see a doctor regularly, and report any pain, swelling, tenderness, and lumps
abstain from sex before marriage to prevent catching sexually transmitted diseases
The Female Reproductive System
The Female Body
The uterus is a muscular organ of the female reproductive system that hold a fetus during pregnancy
The women's sex cell is called an ovum, or plural, ova. The ova, or eggs, are stored in organs called the ovaries
The ovaries also make most of the primary female sex hormone, estrogen
An ovum travels from an ovary to the uterus through a fallopian tube. The fallopian tube draws the ovum out of the ovaries.
Where the uterus meets the vagina, is the cervix
A woman's breast are also a part of her reproductive system
Ovulation
Women are born with all the ova they will ever have.
Ova contain one half of the women's genes.
beginning at puberty, one of the ovaries release a mature ovum every month in a process called ovulation
One dominating ova will be released, while the rest will be reabsorbed by the body
When the ovum is released, the fallopian tube draws the ovum into the tube and is carried to the uterus
Menstruation
To prepare the uterus for pregnancy, the lining of the uterus thickens every month
The lining of the uterus is called the endometrium.
If the ovum is fertilized by the sperm cell, the fertilized ovum will attach to the wall of the uterus and a pregnancy will begin.
If the ovum is not fertilized, the lining is shed. When the lining is shed, blood and tissue leave the body through the vagina.
The monthly breaking down and shedding of the endometrium is called menstruation, this bleeding is also called a period
Menstruation, Cont
Ovulation and Menstruation happen in a cycle that lasts about 28 days
This cycle is called the menstrual cycle.
The length of the menstrual cycle varies from woman to woman.
It can be as short as 21 days or last up to 35 days
The length of the menstrual period and the heaviness of the bleeding can be affected by age, stress, diet, exercise, and illness.
Girls usually have their first menstrual period between the ages of 9 and 16
Common Reproductive Problems
Most healthy young women do not have any significant problems with their reproductive system.
Many of the concerns that young women have are related to the menstrual cycle and menstruation.
Girls normally have irregular periods for the first few year after starting menstruation
Cramps, even though they may be painful, are also normal
Caring for the Female Body
Some medical problems can leave girls and women with damage that can affect their bodies for the rest of their lives.
Take a bath daily, do not wear damp clothes longer than necessary
See a doctor regularly, report an unusual symptoms.
Abstain from sex before marriage to prevent catching sexually transmitted diseases
maintain good hygiene during menstrual periods
Pregnancy & Birth
A New Beginning
During fertilization, a single sperm penetrates the membrane that surrounds the ovum
The genes in the ovum and those in the sperm, combine to form a complete set of human genes
The attachment of the developing cells to the uterus is called implantation
Pregnancy is the time when the new cell formed during fertilization grows and develops into a baby in the woman's uterus.
from the time that the ovum and sperm unit until the end of the 8th week the developing human is called an embryo
from the eighth week until birth, the developing human is called a fetus
Pregnancy generally lasts about 9 months
Changes in the Mother's Body
A woman's body undergoes many changes during pregnancy
As soon as implantation happens, the cells of the mother's uterus release a special hormone
because this hormone is only released during pregnancy, doctors test for this hormone to determine whether a woman is pregnant
some of hormones released may cause a woman to feel nauseated, also known as "morning sickness"
the same hormones make the woman's breast enlarge and prepare to produce milk
Changes in the Mother's Body, Cont
over the 9-month period, the woman's uterus stretches to hold a full-sized newborn baby
A pregnant woman may also experience swelling of her legs and difficulty sleeping as the fetus gets larger.
Some women may also experience emotional changes as a result of their changing hormones
Nourishing the Fetus
almost everything that goes into the mother's body enters her bloodstream and goes into the placenta
The placenta is an organ that grows in the woman's uterus during pregnancy and allow nutrients, gases, and wastes to be exchanged between the mother and the fetus
During pregnancy, the fetus gets its only nutrition from the food its mother eats
to ensure the health of the fetus, the mother needs to eat healthy foods and take special vitamins
a mother can hurt her fetus' health by taking drugs, drinking alcohol, and smoking
The First Trimester
A normal pregnancy lasts 40 weeks, or 9 months
The first trimester is the first 3 months of the pregnancy:
at the beginning the fertilized ovum stays in the fallopian tube for 3 days
once the cells have entered the uterus, it is a rapidly growing ball of cells
By the end of the fourth week:
the heart has formed and begun to beat
the embryo has the beginning of a brain, and its spinal cord, legs, and arms begin to grow
By the end of the 9th week, all major organs have been formed and the embryo is now called a fetus
The Second Trimester
the second trimester: 4th - 6th month
At the beginning of the second trimester the fetus is 3 inches, by the end the fetus will be 3 times that size
It is during this trimester that the mother will start to feel the baby move.
Between 14-18 weeks, a doctor can tell whether the fetus is a boy or girl
What is growing:
fingers and toes grow nails
eyelashes and eyebrows are developing by the end of the 6th month
The Third Trimester
The Last 3 months!
The fetus develops more muscles and moves more
The eyes open during the first part of this trimester and its chest begins to "practice" breathing motions
The fetus can hear and it may be able to even recognize them!!
By the end of this trimester, the fetus' organs have formed and are completely functioning
Birth
The passage of a baby from its mother's uterus to outside her body is called birth
Labor is the process that lasts from the time contractions start until the delivery of the child and the placenta
1st Stage: 1st contraction until the cervix has opened enough to allow the baby's head to pass through
2nd stage: cervix is completely open and lasts until the baby is delivered
After the baby is born, the umbilical cord is cut.
3rd stage: the placenta is pushed out
Complications of Pregnancy and Birth:
Miscarriage: the loss of pregnancy before the 20th week
Ectopic Pregnancy: a pregnancy in which the embryo implants outside the uterus
Toxemia: a medical problem in which hormones cause high blood pressure, swelling of the body, and injury to the kidneys
Gestational diabetes: abnormally high blood-sugar levels in the the mother. If uncontrolled, may lead to abnormalities or death of the fetus
Growing and Changing
Childhood Development
Between birth and 1: infancy
Childhood is the development between infancy and adolescence
first stage: 1-3
improve all of their physical skills
second stage: 3-6
most children learn to read and make friends
third stage: 6-11
more coordinated
continued mental development
Adolescence
Transition from childhood to maturity involves mental, emotional, physical, and social growth
Puberty is the stage of development when the reproductive organs mature and the person becomes able to reproduce
Adulthood
last from the end of adolescence until the end of life
It is during adulthood that many people fulfill personal and professional goals
adults have numerous responsibilities!!!
Adolescent Growth and Development
Your Changing Body
What Makes You Grow
Puberty is the part of adolescence when the reproductive system becomes mature
The changes that happen during puberty are caused by hormones, which are a chemical made in one part of your body
The hormones that cause sexual maturation are called sex hormones:
testosterone: the male sex hormone
progesterone and estrogen: are the sex hormones of females
Male and Females have both testosterone and estrogen
Individual Differences in Development
There are many different factors that affect your development:
heredity, nutrition, your weight and fitness level, and overall health
Boys and Girls mature at different times and at different rates!!
Some people develop earlier or later than others
If you do have any concerns, see your doctor, they can tell you whether your are growing normally
Physical Changes in Boys
For boys, puberty begins between the ages of 10-14
One major change is the rapid growth in both height and weight. This rapid growth can cause boys to feel awkward and clumsy
Other Changes Include:
voice gets deeper
facial hair begins to grow
muscles grow
acne develops
Physical Changes in Girls
Puberty for girls begins between the ages of 8-13
Menstruation is the most significant change, as this happens between the ages of 10-16. This is a sign that the body' is mature enough to become pregnant.
Other Changes Include:
breast begin to grow
hips widen
may develop acne
fat is deposited in the buttocks and thighs
Your Changing Mind
Development of Mental Abilities
the ability to think critically, or analyze ideas, improves.
You begin to rely on your abstract thinking, which is thought about ideas that are beyond what you see or experience
You being to consider complex moral and ethical ideas.
Development of Behavior
Adjusting to the changes of adolescence can be difficult.
Some teens turn to risky behaviors in order to cope:
sexual activity, tobacco use, alcohol and drug use, unnecessary physical risks, poor nutrition, and lack of exercise
Teens think that by taking some of these risks, they have control of their lives
The ability to think abstractly will help you understand both the short-term and long-term consequences of your actions
Mood Swings
Because of all these changes, you could experience mood swings.
mood swings may make you feel happy one day and sad the next
Mood swings are normal, however if you feel hopeless or helpless for longer than a few days, you need to talk to someone you can trust.
Your Changing Feelings
Attraction to Others
Another part of adolescence is the romantic attraction to others
Early in adolescence, attraction normally takes on the form of infatuation or "crush"
Later on in adolescence, or in early adulthood, most people begin to form romantic relationships based on love
Belonging
Friendships may also change as well, as adolescents begin to care more and more about being accepted
Making friends is part of getting ready for adulthood, friends who accept you can help you deal with the stresses of growing up
Choose your friends wisely!!
You should never pretend to be someone you're not just to fit in, true friends will accept you for who you are!!
Independence
independence is very important to adolescents!
to be free of the control of others and relying on your own judgment and abilities is independence
By the end of adolescence, most people are responsible for taking care of themselves.
Do not abuse this independence!!
Responsibility
The best way to gain more independence is to show your parents that you are responsible and that you can be trusted
Responsibility is the act of accepting the consequence of your decisions and actions
By learning to be responsible, adolescents prepare for adult roles!!
Peer Groups and Cliques
Your peers are those people of about the same age or grade as you with whom you interact every day
Your peers have a good amount of influence over you, both positive and negative
A clique is a group of people who accept only certain types of people and exclude others.
Preparing for the Future
Discovering your Interests
School is a very important part of preparing the future.
Extracurricular activities are activies that you do that aren't part of your schoolwork:
clubs and sports
Elective classes are classes that you can choose to take for a grade but are not required
band, choir, art
Getting Organized
Juggling school, friends, family, and other activities requires a lot of organization!!
Your Schoolwork
You need to develop good study skills to succeed in your education!!
Planning for Your Future
What kind of career do I want?
Where do I want to go to school?
What do I enjoy doing?
What lifestyle do you want?
Aging
Even in adulthood, our bodies change, and over time they wear down.
Arthritis
Alzheimer's Disease
Heart Disease
Cancer
Healthy habits can reduce certain health problems.
Death
Life expectancy is how long people are expected to live.
The Endocrine System
Thyroid gland: helps regulate body growth and development
The adrenal gland regulates the development of sex characteristics that signal the physical differences between male and female
Pituitary gland stimulate physical growth and the development of the reproductive organs
pubic hair grows
shoulders widen
fat is deposited in lower abdomen
hair grows under arms and on body
hips widen and pelvis tilts
menstruation begins
height and weight increase
pubic hair grows
Problems of the Male Reproductive System
Jock Itch: infection of the skin by a fungus
Sexually Transmitted Infection: disease passed from one person to another by sexual contact
Hernia: a weakness in the lower abdominal wall that allows a small loop of intestine to bulge through
Undescended Testicle: a development defect in which a testicle has not descended into the scrotum
Urinary Tract Infection: infection in the urinary tract
Testicular Cancer: uncontrolled growth of the cells of the testes
Testicular Torsion: twisting of the testicle on the nerves and blood vessels
Prostate Enlargement: enlargement of the prostate gland
Problems of the Female Reproductive System
Vaginitis: an infection of the vagina by bacteria, fungi, or protozoa
Endometriosis: growth of a tissue like the endometrium outside the uterus and in the wrong place in a woman's body
Urinary Tract Infection: infection in the urinary tract
Sexually Transmitted Infection: disease passed from one person to another by sexual contact
Toxic Shock Syndrome: a bacterial infection that may be caused by leaving tampons in the vagina too long during menstruation
Cervical, Uterine, and Ovarian Cancer: uncontrollable growth of cells on the cervix, uterus, ovary. The sexually transmitted infection HPV increases the chance of getting cervical cancer
Grief
Dealing with death is always difficult. When someone you love dies, you probably feel grief.
grief is a deep sadness about a loss.
5 Stages of Grief:
1. Denial: the person refuses to accept that the loved one is dead.
2. Anger: the person is angry that his or her loved one has been taken
3. Bargaining: the person wishes that he or she could find a way to get the loved one back
4. Despair: the person is sad that the loved one is gone
5. Acceptance: the person accepts that the loved one is gone and begins to move on with his or her life
The ovaries secrete estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen affects the development of female sex characteristics. Progesterone allows the uterus to prepare for pregnancy
The testes secrete testosterone which affects sperm production and the development of male sex characteristics
Complications of Pregnancy and Birth:
Rh incompatability: a condition in which the blood types of the mother and the fetus do not match and the mother's body forms antibodies against the fetus' blood
Premature birth: the birth of a baby before the 37th week of pregnancy
Breech birth: a birth in which the baby is born upside down with the bottom coming out first. Most breech babies are born via C-section
Oxygen deprivation: lack of oxygen to a baby's brain during birth, may cause brain damage to the baby
Stillbirth: the delivery of an infant that is dead after the 20th week or more of pregnancy
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