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Transcript of French Revolution.
What was the French Revolution?
Major events of the French Revolution:
P werful characters of the French Revolution
The French Revolution involved the whole population of France, as the name states.
There were three main estates (classes) which people of France were divided into before and during the French Revolution but the estates, the monarchy and the feudalism were some of the things that were limited in result of the French Revolution.
During the French revolution in 1789, the population of France was approxiamately 26 million people.
Who were the people were involved in the French Revolution?
What were the effects of the French Revolution?
What were the causes of the French Revolution?
The French Revolution also inspired other Revolutions after it concluded. For example: the Latin Revolutions. such as the ones in Haiti and Mexico.
One of the negative effects of the French Revolution was that thousands of people have died before France have achieved the result at the end of the French revolution.
Another negative effect of the French Revolution was that France's overseas trades were reduced by 50% during that period. (1789-1799).
The Declaration of rights of man and citizen is a fundamental document which contains and describes the 17 rights of all Estates.
The Declaration of rights of man and citizen:
Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be founded only upon the general good.
The aim of all political association is the preservation of the natural and imprescriptible rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.
The principle of all sovereignty resides essentially in the nation. No body nor individual may exercise any authority which does not proceed directly from the nation.
Liberty consists in the freedom to do everything which injures no one else; hence the exercise of the natural rights of each man has no limits except those which assure to the other members of the society the enjoyment of the same rights. These limits can only be determined by law.
Law can only prohibit such actions as are hurtful to society. Nothing may be prevented which is not forbidden by law, and no one may be forced to do anything not provided for by law.
Law is the expression of the general will. Every citizen has a right to participate personally, or through his representative, in its foundation. It must be the same for all, whether it protects or punishes. All citizens, being equal in the eyes of the law, are equally eligible to all dignities and to all public positions and occupations, according to their abilities, and without distinction except that of their virtues and talents.
No person shall be accused, arrested, or imprisoned except in the cases and according to the forms prescribed by law. Any one soliciting, transmitting, executing, or causing to be executed, any arbitrary order, shall be punished. But any citizen summoned or arrested in virtue of the law shall submit without delay, as resistance constitutes an offense.
The law shall provide for such punishments only as are strictly and obviously necessary, and no one shall suffer punishment except it be legally inflicted in virtue of a law passed and promulgated before the commission of the offense.
As all persons are held innocent until they shall have been declared guilty, if arrest shall be deemed indispensable, all harshness not essential to the securing of the prisoner's person shall be severely repressed by law.
No one shall be disquieted on account of his opinions, including his religious views, provided their manifestation does not disturb the public order established by law.
The free communication of ideas and opinions is one of the most precious of the rights of man. Every citizen may, accordingly, speak, write, and print with freedom, but shall be responsible for such abuses of this freedom as shall be defined by law.
The security of the rights of man and of the citizen requires public military forces. These forces are, therefore, established for the good of all and not for the personal advantage of those to whom they shall be entrusted.
A common contribution is essential for the maintenance of the public forces and for the cost of administration. This should be equitably distributed among all the citizens in proportion to their means.
All the citizens have a right to decide, either personally or by their representatives, as to the necessity of the public contribution; to grant this freely; to know to what uses it is put; and to fix the proportion, the mode of assessment and of collection and the duration of the taxes.
Society has the right to require of every public agent an account of his administration.
A society in which the observance of the law is not assured, nor the separation of powers defined, has no constitution at all.
Property being an inviolable and sacred right, no one can be deprived of it, unless demanded by public necessity, legally constituted, explicitly demands it, and under the condition of a just and prior indemnity.
The French Revolution was a period in France (during 1789-1799) where there was an end to the Monarchy-King, Nobles & Clergy (Upper Class), Middle class and Third Estate (Peasants)-as their King had shared his power and control with the people of France; making France a more fairer and a more democratic place.
Before the French revolution, the king had all the power and control.
Violent battles were fought, for the result of the French Revolution.
One of the main causes of the French Revolution was because of financial Problems. In fact, France was 4000 million livres in Debt.
At the time, France Had Money Problems because:
Firstly, France had spent a lot of money fighting in costly wars, but they didn't get anything back from it.
Secondly, at the time, France was going through a bad harvest time because of the terrible, extreme weathers in both Summer and Winter. It affected their money problem because they depended strongly on their agriculture to make money.
Thirdly, people were accusing the royals for spending so much money on their luxuries and lastly, their tax system was corrupted, mostly because some tax collectors did not hand in all their tax money that they have collected and Nobles and Clergies were not required to pay any taxes.
Another cause of the French Revolution was because of the frustration and resentment of the working class.
As life got harder for them, with the food prices rising because of the bad harvest, and some workers received less pay or even lost their jobs because of the bad harvest as well, the working class wanted a fairer life and fairer taxation as they grew tired of watching the King, Nobles and Clergies living so comfortably in luxury.
Other causes included: political arguments between the Monarchy and the nobility about tax,
social arguments between the aristocracy and the bourgeoisie groups, Louis XVI and religious reasons also.
January 24 -
The Estates General is officially summoned; election details go out.
February to June -
Elections to the Estates General.
The Estates General opens.
August 4 -
Feudalism and privileges are abolished by the National Assembly.
August 26 -
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen published.
October 5 to 6 -
Women's march to Versialles .
May 21 -
Paris is divided into sections.
July 12 -
The Civil Constitution of the Clergy,
September 4 -
Jacques Necker resigns.
October 20 -
Brissot's first calls for war against the émigrés.
Even though the French revolution had caused those negative effects, it has also made France become a more unified country, making them a more stronger republic.
Not only that, but the French Revolution also enhanced the values of liberty and equality of the world.
The French Revolution also inspired the start of Democracy.
Louis XVI was a significant and powerful character at the time of the French Revolution because he was the French king of the Bourbon dynasty at the time. He inherited the throne in 1774 but many people believed the King Louis XVI wasn't an effective leader because France gained massive debt problems under his control but he was unable to fix them
King Louis Auguste XVI De France
Marie-Antoinette Antonia Josephina Johanna
Charles De Calonne
Marie-Antoinette was the wife of King Louis XVI. She became a powerful and significant person of the French Revolution because her self-important attitude represented how the working class saw the royals as spending too much money on their luxuries.
Charles De Calonne was appointed to the role of Controller general of finances by Louis XVI in 1783. He was a powerful and significant person during the French Revolution because he was the person who recommended that every citizen, regardless of the income they received or which estate they belonged to, must pay taxation as it was the only way to save France’s gargantuan financial situation
The highest estate involved in the French Revolution was the royals.
The royals, especially the king, had ruled absolutely and had complete authority before the French Revolution.
Around 4000 royals were executed during thr French revolution.
Another estate of France involved in the French Revolution were the Nobles and Clergies. The Nobles and Clergies could also be known as the first and second estate or upper class, living their lives almost as comfortably as the royals, living in luxurious chateaux and palaces. Clergies were churchmen, such as priests. There were around about 17000 to 25000 noble families during 1789.The first and second estates lived comfortable lives as they had complete authority over the peasants. They also were not required to pay any taxes or participate in military services. Instead, nobles collected taxes when people were using roads and market.
The final estate of France involved in the French revolution were people involved in the third estate. Also known as peasants. Peasants made up a 90% of the French population during the French Revolution. Life was harsh for peasants before the French Revolution, as they were forced to participate in military services and pay taxes to their lord, the king and the church. Extra rules the peasants had to follow by were:
they had to pay to use the lord's mill, oven or wine press. Also they were not allowed to hunt or fish on the nobles' lands.
With all the taxes that were crushing them, the peasants desprately needed a change.
July 14 -
The storming of the Bastille
The nobility were abolished.
At Easter -
The king and his family fled Paris in disguise
6000 people gathered in the Champs-du-mars - a large field on the edge of paris - to sign the petiiton. Bailly (the mayor of Paris) and Lafayette marcChamp de Mars Massacres, led from the head of troops to scatter the crowds, but there was a riot in which fifty people were killed.
Due to growing fears of counter-revolutionary suspects in prison, Marat, a powerful figure in the government, called for the conspirators to be killed. On September 2 armed bands began visiting the prisons and killing the prisoners, the massacres continued for five days.
The monarchy was finally overthrown after a bloody battle in which some 800 of the king's men and 400 insurgents were killed. and a Republic was declared.
In 1792 the Guillotine was introduced as the method of execution.
King Louis XVI was guillotined.
The Revolutionary Tribunal was set up. It was intended to prevent massacres like those of the previous September happening. It had wide jurisdiction over men and women suspected of opposing the Revolution. There were complaints about it's slowness,
The White Terror began.
Febuary 4 -
slavery was abolished in all the French colonies
Danton was executed.
10 June 1794 to 27 july 1794 -
the Great Terror took place.
July 27 -
The national convention arrested Robespierre
Beginning of the Egypt Campaign.
The Estates-General (États généraux) was a gathering of deputies/representatives from all the estates; that took place at Versailles. There were 1100 deputies divided between the estates.
The members of the national assembly marched onto the royal tennis court and pledged an oath not to leave until the king has met their demand.
Louis XVI orders the clergy and the nobility to join with the Third Estate in the National Assembly.
(Fête de la Fédération)
The king and his family were recaptured at Varennes and brought back to Paris in their attempt to flee the country.
Champs-de-Mars Shooting (Fusillade du Champs-de-Mars)
King Louis XVI accepts the new constitution. The next day, he signs it in front of the National Assembly.
December 25 -
Louis XVI signs his Last Will
The French Revolutionary Wars begin.
August 13 -
The royal family is thrown into the Temple prison.
September 21 -
Formal abolition of the monarchy.
March 11 -
The Wars of the Vendée begin.
January 21 -
Execution of Louis XVI
June 24 -
Constitution of the Year
July 13 -
Assassination of Jean-Paul Marat.
June 8 -
Festival of the Supreme Being (Fête de l’Être Suprême)
October 31 -
Constitution of the year III.
November 9 -
The fall of the directory of Napoleon Bonapoarte.
April 10 -
Beginning of the Italian Campaign.
September 4 -
Coup d'état of 18 Fructidor, year V. Encouraged by Napoleon, the Directory eliminates the royalists from the government.
The Directory invalidates half of all elections to eliminate the Jacobins.
June 20 -
The Tennis Court Oath.
June 21 -
Flight To Varennes
July 17 -
Champ de Mars Massacres,
June 20 -
Storming of the Tuileries
August 10 -
Overthrow of the Monarchy
September 2 to 6 -
Results in the end of the French Revolution.
October 26 -
National convention desolved
July 28 -
Robespierre was executed
September 5 -
July 27, 1794 - The Reign of Terror
Other powerful and significant
characters of the French Revolution included:
Napoleon was a general in the French army. He was a significant character of the french revolution because he had led the
1799 coup that overthrew the Directory.
Also Napoleon’s accession marked the end of the French Revolution and the beginning of Napoleonic France and Europe.
Jacques-Pierre Brissot was a member of the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention. He was a significant member of the French revolution becaue he had a group of followers, known as Brissotins, later known more as the Girondins, as he believed in the idea of a constitutional monarchy.
Lazare Carnot was a French soldier. He was a significant character of the French revolution because he effectively recognized France's failing war effort against Austria and Prussia, appointed by the Committee of Public Safety. Carnot succeeded and made enough of a name for himself to earn a position as one of the first members of the Directory.
Jacqes Necker was a banker who was France’s director general of finance in the late 1770s. He was a significant character of the French Revolution becuase He had produced a government budget for the first time in French history
Robespierre was a political tactician. and leader of the radical Jacobins in the National Assembly. As chairman of the Committee of Public Safety,however, and during the Reign of Terror of 1793–1794 attempted to s save France from invasion from enermies of the Revolution.
Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes was a member of the clergy (upper class), who supported the Third Estate.
He was a significant character of the French revolution because he was one of the primary
leaders of the Third Estate's effort to reform politically and economically. He was also the author of the 1789 pamphlet “What Is the Third Estate?”.
February 26 -
France divided into 83 departments.
July 14 -
Feast of the Federation,
A celebration to mark one year since the fall of the Bastille.
He was a banker who became France's director general of finance in the late 1770s
September 13 -
The King accepts the new constitution.
September 30 -
The National Assembly is dissolved.
June 2 -
Fall of the Brissotins (Girondins)
Charlotte Corday, a Girondin, assassinates Montagnard leader Jean-Paul Marat in his bath.
October 16 -
Execution of Marie Antoinette.
Beginning of the Great Terror, the part where the Reign of Terror picked up the pace.
Nearly 1400 men and women were executed - an average of nearly 200 every week.
May 11 -
Coup d'état of 22 Floréal, year VI.
A law which was passed by the National assembly allowing the altering of catholic churches.
June 17 -
The National Assembly is proclaimed.
The Women's march to Versialles resulted in the royal family moving from Versilles to Paris.
April 20 -
War declaration against Austria.
The National Convention is the new government of France.
Jacobin prisoners were murdered
The elections to the estates general took place with uncertainty in 1788.
King Louis calls the estates general for the first time since 1614.
Bastille was a prison located in Paris. After the storming of the Bastille, the French revolution officially began.
A fundemental documents listing and describing the 17 rights of all estates of France, which was written by Marquis de Lafayett and published by the National assembly.
Nobles were no longer being called by their tittles as it was one of the orders of the National assembly, bbacked up by the law.
The king and his family decided to try to flee the country after their family had been threathened