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The Ideological differences between the USA and USSR

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on 11 December 2013

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Transcript of The Ideological differences between the USA and USSR

The Cold War: Why did it start?
The Ideological differences between the USA and USSR
The USA and the USSR had quite a few Ideological differences.
Politics
The USA was Capitalist, this meant that they gave people freedoms. The three main freedoms are : Freedom of press, free elections, and freedom of protests/speech. Also, anything that they produced belonged to them.
The USSR was communist, who didn't give their people very much freedom at all. If someone tried to protest, they would quietly take them away. The government controlled what was said in the newspaper and when elections came around, the government chose who would run for the elections and they would both be communist - so the people were stuck. Also, anything made was property of the government.
Lifestyle
America's lifestyle would have been more laid back, due to the freedoms they had (they were a democracy),
Whereas Russia would have been less enjoyable, as they would have felt like they were owned by the one-state government (a dictatorship) and scared of the secret police force.
Different objectives
It was decided, at Yalta and Potsdam, that the big three (UK,USA,USSR) wanted peace in Germany and Europe. But, Both (East and West) wanted peace for different reasons. Churchill (Part of the west) wanted peace for Europe with Britain leading Europe. One step further, Roosevelt (The West) wanted democracy with USA at the head, but Stalin wanted the opposite. Stalin wanted peace, but only so he could have more power. If he had peace, it would be easier to control people and spread Communism.
Yalta and Potsdam conferences
These two main conferences could have possibly led to the cold war
Yalta
Held on February 4-11th, 1945
Stalin (leader of USSR), Roosevelt (president of USA) and Churchill (prime minister of Britain) attended
Soviets agreed to have free elections
Germany would be responsible for world war II
Germany would be split into 4 zones, one controlled by the USSR, one by Britain, one by the USA and one by France.
Stalin agreed to join in the war with Japan in exchange for land (Sphere of influence)
Yalta
Agreed that Polish communist government members could go to the USSR government.
United nations would be formed
Germany would be split into 4 zones, one controlled by the USSR, one by Britain, one by the USA and one by France.
Stalin agreed to join in the war with Japan in exchange for land (Sphere of influence)
Potsdam
Held in Germany, 17th July - 2nd August, 1945
Stalin (leader of USSR), Churchill (attended as Britain prime minister until 26 July), Atlee (Took over as prime minister from Churchill), Truman (President of USA) attended.
Terms of Japans surrender were agreed
Germany's reparations confirmed
Decision was made to hold war trials
Truman hints at weapon he has
The Atom bomb
This was the bomb that Truman referred to at Potsdam.
Hiroshima
6 August, the A bomb is dropped on Hiroshima
"More than 2,000 times more powerful than the largest bomb used to date"
Was a way of making Japan surrender
70,000 died straight away and another 70,000 died from radiation within five years.
Hiroshima after the bomb
The A bomb
Nagasaki
August 9, 1945
Wasn't the first choice of target
About 40% of the city was destroyed
70,000 people died by the end of the year because of the bomb
Japan surrendered the next day.
The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan
The Truman Doctrine was a speech given by Truman promising that the USA would help anyone who was being forced to be communist but didn't want to be. The Marshall Plan was the plan that would deliver this help (Financially and Economically)
Stalin
Stalin refused the help, on behalf of his Buffer States and Russia (who were also offered the Marshall Plan!) not giving them choice.
Greece and Turkey
Greece and Turkey were named in the Truman Doctrine, and probably one of the main causes for Truman to make this speech. Greece and Turkey had been receiving armed help from Britain against Communism, but Britain had to retreat their forces due to financial problems, therefore leaving Greece and Turkey with no defense against Communism.
The Berlin Crisis
The Berlin crisis was made up of two main factors - The Berlin Blockade and The Berlin Airlift.
Germany had been split into 4 zones, occupied by USSR, USA, Britain and France.
Germany
Berlin
Berlin (the capital of Germany) was under Stalin's control and split into East and West.
Cause and Consequence
The cause was the deutchmark: a new currency that the west introduced to their zones, to help Germany prosper. Stalin saw this as capitalism trying to spread through Germany, and therefore the consequence was the Berlin Blockade
Finally...
On May 12, 1949 the blockade was called off and the airlift stopped.
The Berlin airlift was the USA's response to the Berlin blockade. They flew much needed supplies into West Berlin such as food and coal. They landed in airfields, and it is estimated that one plane landed every 3 minutes. They flew over 2.5 million supplies into West Berlin and more than half of this was coal!
Berlin airlift
Berlin Blockade
The Berlin Blockade was that - on the 24th June, 1948 - Stalin cut off all transport routes in and out of West Berlin, which meant no supplies could enter Berlin. Stalin's reasoning was to try and starve the people of West Berlin until they were desperate for help, and once they asked for Communist help, they would be Communist for definite.
What contributed most to the start of the cold war?
In my opinion, I think the Berlin Blockade and Airlift contributed most. It was the first crisis of the Cold War and very nearly resulted in direct conflict between the East and West. It showed very clear ideological differences between the USSR and primarily the USA (although Britain and France were involved as well) and showed what each side was willing to do to have control/keep a place communist or capitalist)
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