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Organic Molecule: Concept Map

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on 17 December 2014

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Transcript of Organic Molecule: Concept Map

Organic Molecule: Concept Map
Carbohydrates
- made up of sugars primary energy storage molecules
- there are three main types: polysaccarides, disaccharides and monosaccharides
- Blood transports glucose throughout the body in order to supply the body with the necessary energy
Proteins
- one of the most abundant organic molecules
- proteins are all made up of enzymes, hormones, storage proteins, transport proteins, contractile and membrane proteins

Lipids
- Hydrophobic, energy storage molecules (fats and oils)
- Functions: energy storage, insulation, buoyancy, suitable for long term energy storage
- Essential components of cell membranes
- There are 3 main types of lipids: Triglycerides, Phospholipids and Steroids
Nucleic Acids
Monosaccharides
- Simple sugars (consist of 1 sugar)
Examples of Monosaccharides: Ribose, glucose, fructose, galactose etc...
- Glucose: used for cellular respiration
- Fructose: sugar produced in fruits
Disaccharides
- two simple sugars linked together
- Examples of Disaccharides: Glucose + Fructose --> Sucrose (table sugar)
Glucose + galactose --> lactose (milk sugar)
Glucose +glucose --> maltose
Polysaccarides
- a chain of monosaccharides
- examples: Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose
- Glycogen: stored in the liver and is used as an energy source when the hormone glucagon is released from the liver that stimulates the breaking down of glycogen
- Cellulose: Found in plant cell walls, strengthens cell wall
Amino Acids
- Consist of a central carbon atom bonded to an amino acid (-NH_2) a carboxyl group (-COOH) and to a hydrogen atom
- An "R" is another group of atoms that differentiate one amino from another (There are 20 different amino acids due to the "R" groups.)
Properties of Water: Structure
- Water as a whole has a neutral charge
- Hydrogen has a partial positive charge and oxygen has a partially negative charge --> This means that water is a polar covalent dipolar molecule
- Hydrogen bonding and dipolarity explain the major properties of water including thermal, cohesive and adhesive properties

Properties of Water: Thermal
- Thermal Properties of Water: Refers to the large amount of energy required to heat up water and change its state
- High specific heat capacity: water has a high heat capacity which means that large amounts of energy are needed to raise its temperature and change state
- a large amount of energy is needed to break up hydrogen bonds
- helps water temperatures remain stable allowing organisms in water to adjust to their environment
- allows water to exist as a liquid on earth
Properties of Water: Latent heat of vaporization
- Energy is released when a hydrogen bond is formed and used when a bond is broken
- In specific instances heat energy can break down hydrogen bonds and leas to the cooling effects of evaporation
- Transpiration in plants and humans (and some other animals) sweating --> cools the body
Properties of Water: High Boiling Point/Low Melting Point
- Boiling point - to change from liquid to gas the hydrogen bonds between water molecules must be broken therefor the boiling point for water is fairly high at 100 *C

How it compares:
Methane Water
Melting Point -182 *C 0 *C

Boiling Point -160 *C 100 *C
Triglycerides
- Fats and oils made up of one glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acids (2 types of fatty acids - saturated and unsaturated)
- Formed by condensation
Fatty Acids: Saturated Fat
Fatty Acids: Unsaturated Fats
- Saturated fats: Where carbon molecules have formed bonds to 4 other atoms and are connected by single covalent bonds, they tend to be solid at room temperature
- Ex: butter, lard
- Unsaturated fats: where carbon molecules have formed one or more double bond(s)
- Ex: olive oil, corn oil etc...
- Can be monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, cis or trans
- Monounsaturated: only one double bond
Polyunsaturated: two or more double bonds
- Trans unsaturated: have hydrogen atoms bonded to carbon atoms on opposite sides of a double bond
- Cis unsaturated: have hydrogen bonded to carbon atoms on the same side of the double bonds
Formation of dipeptides
- Dipeptides are formed through condensation which can continue to form larger molecules with many amino acids called polypeptides
- Polypeptides made up of amino acids which are linked together by peptide bonds formed from condensation and can consist of up to 400 A.A.
Denurturation of Proteins
- Can occur by pH or heat
- Excessive heat or deviation of pH from optimum disturbs the bonds and interactions of amino acids and makes the protein non-functional
Examples of Proteins
1. Rubisco: Enzyme, its active site catalyses the photosynthesis reaction, takes CO2 and fixes (converts it) into glucose and oxygen (as a byproduct)
2. Insulin: Hormone, dissolves into blood, absorbs glucose and lowers the blood glucose concentration
3. Immunoglobines: Antibodies, allows immunity against many different diseases
4. Rhodopsin: Pigment, allows rod cells of the retina (in the eye) light sensitive (allows nerve impulses to be sent)
5. Collagen: Structural protein, prevents tearing in bones, tendons, ligaments and hair
6. Spider Silk: Structural protein, high tensile strength, resists breakage
Building up and breaking down of Macromolecules
Condensation: (little to big)
- the chemical reaction in which two molecules join together by the removal of water
- water is formed in the reaction from an H from one molecule combining with an OH from another
- linking together of these molecules requires energy in the form of ATP
- Anabolic process as it involves the building of molecules
Hydrolysis: (big to little)
- is when water is used to split polymers (-lysis: to break apart)
- water is split into H+ and OH- which become taken up by the molecules

- Condensation and Hydrolysis are reverse reactions
Metabolism, Anabolism, Catabolism
- Metabolism: the web of all the enzyme-catalysed reactions in a cell or organism
- Anabolism: the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecules including the formation of macromolecules from monomers by condensation reactions
- Catabolism: the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler molecules including the hydrolysis of macromolecules into monomers
Glucose
glycerol
Organic Molecules: Are those which contain carbon and are found in living organisms
Solvent properties of water
- referred to as "the universal solvent"
- Hydrophilic substances: dissolvable in water
- Hydrophobic substances: insoluble in water
Transport in Blood plasma:
NaCl - dissociates and is transported as Na+ and Cl-
Glucose and amino acids - are polar and dissolve in the plasma
Oxygen - is non-polar and carried on hemoglobin found in red blood cells
Cholesterol and fats - non-polar (can't dissolve) transported as lipoproteins (small droplets made of phosohlipids and proteins with fats and cholesterol's inside
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