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MOTIVATION

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on 23 November 2013

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Transcript of MOTIVATION

When and how do rewards work?
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic
MOTIVATION
Motivation is defined as the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviors.

Motivation is what causes us to act.

Praise
Specific
Genuine
Effort rather than intelligence
Timely
THE HOT ISSUE
Is the use of rewards in education detrimental to the intrinsic motivation of students?
Intrinsic Motivation
"Doing something because it is inherently interesting or enjoyable." (Ryan & Deci)

- No external controls
Extrinsic Motivation
"Doing something because it leads to a separable outcome." (Ryan & Deci)
-rewards and punishments
Why Is Motivation Important?
"There are three things to remember about education. The first is motivation. The second one is motivation. The third one is motivation." -Education Secretary Terrel Bell
activity
Pair share with your partner about why you are a graduate student.

Decide if you would define your motivations as intrinsic or extrinsic
What motivates you?
Motivation affects every
aspect of a student's life:

Relationships
Time/effort
Support/help when struggling
Engagement in academics
Athletics/extra-curricular
Performance on assessments
Not so black and white or clearly defined

Self-Determination Theory
Defined by Ryan and Deci
Distinguishes between types of motivation
Humans have tendencies to grow and incorporate new challenges/experiences into our lives
Tendencies do not occur automatically
Social setting either promotes or inhibits these tendencies
Social and environmental factors that facilitate rather than undermine INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
Cognitive Evaluation Theory
Within SDT (One of Five)
Concerns intrinsic motivation and social contexts that support it
Feelings of competence will enhance intrinsic motivation
highlights the importance of autonomy
"Deep and lifelong learning effectively takes place only if the learning process is not limited by external rewards" Rassuli
Cons of Rewards
"Classrooms should be about fostering learning, not training students to perform with treats"
Unrealistic because rewards aren't endless.
Reward = coercion
Intrinsic motivation decreases with the use of external motivation
reduce creativity
Rewards do not decrease motivation
The Behaviorists
Perspective
The circumstances in which rewards are detrimental is limited and can be controlled
The work of Hidi and Bandura show that achievement based rewards lead to task involvement and increased interest
Motivation can be seen as a spectrum or circle
When individuals are rewarded for achieving and absolute, normative or graded level performance, intrinsic motivation is increased.
Cameron et al. showed that rewards can increase INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
Rewarding performance is less effective than rewarding mastery (of task, skill or subject)
Mastery rewards foster positive affect, adaptive/flexible strategy use, deep cognitive engagement in tasks, trial and error, learning from mistakes
Performance rewards foster avoidance, helplessness, frustration from failure, attempts to validate ability, can undermine competence and control (bar set too high)
Mastery vs. Performance
Behavioral principals state it is important to shape behavior, reinforcing the child's current competencies and giving her a chance for success.
(Make goals specific, individual and not too high)
Use appropriate "thinning" of reinforcement schedules utilized as goals are met
Positive reinforcements
verbal praise
token economics
group contingencies
contracts
school based programs
etc
Four Dimensions of Motivation

Competence
: Am I capable?
the student believes he or she has te ability to complete the task
Control/Autonomy
: Can I control it?
sees direct link
retains autonomy through choice
Interest/value
: Does it interest me? Is it worth the effort?
has interest, sees value
Relatedness
: What do others think?
Completion brings social rewards classroom or group, approval
Bandura, 1996, Dweck, 2010, Murray, 2011, Pintrich, 2001, Deci and Ryan, 2000, Seifert, 2004
Praise and Belief
"Praise is intricately connected to how students view their intelligence. Some students believe that their intellectual ability is a fixed trait."
Carol Dweck
-Reward students for mastering certain skills or increasing their understanding rather than for reaching a particular performance level or outperforming others.

-Target behaviors or tasks that students feel are achievable,
clearly articulated, and within their control.

- Reward tasks that are challenging enough to maintain students’interests but not so challenging as to undermine students’feelings of competence.

- Consider offering rewards linked to academics, such as books, rather than cash or non-academic rewards.

-Allow students to choose whether to pursue a reward.

-Provide rewards promptly enough so that students see a clear link between their actions and the reward.

- Have teachers or other individuals of social importance give out the rewards.

-Take care not to condition students to depend on a reward

-Use effort praise and develop a growth mind set


Considerations
Cultivating a growth mind set
Know what you are saying to yourself, self-talk is very important
Know you have a choice
Talk back to your fixed mindset
Teaching Practices

Discovery based learning
Autonomy
Choice
Relevancy
Challenge
My personal belief


Hold high, realistic expectations

Show you believe in them

Hold them accountable

Use what works
Full transcript