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Science Practice Problems

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by

Brenda Lee

on 3 April 2014

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Transcript of Science Practice Problems

Practice
Problems

By
Brenda Lee

Page 1
Section 1: Continental Drift
Section 2: Seafloor Spreading

Continental Drift
1: Alfred Wegner was one of the first people to suggest that all the continents used to be one.
2: He called this big continent Pangaea.
3: For example similar fossils have been found in South America and Africa.
4: Also, fossils of warm weather plants have been found in the Arctic.
5: Similar rock structures exist the Appalachian mountains, in Greenland and Western Europe.
6: But until Harry Hess`s theory of seafloor spreading scientists could not think of how the continents moved.
Seafloor Spreading
This happens when...

Hot, molten rock is forced upwards toward the seafloor at a mid-ocean ridge.
The molten rock pushes sideways in both directions as it rises, moving the mantle with it.
Then the molten rock flows onto the seafloor and hardens as it cools.
The new seafloor moves away from the ridge,cools,becomes denser then sinks.
Section 3
The Theory of Plate Tectonics
The Theory of Plate Tectonics
1: The theory of plate tectonics states that the Earth`s crust and upper mantle are broken up into pieces.
2: These sections, called plates, are composed of the crust and a part of the upper mantle.
3: The crust and upper mantle together are called the lithosphere.
4: Beneath this layer is the plastic like asthenosphere.
5: Scientists suggest that differences in density cause hot,plastics like rock to be forced upward toward the surface, cool,and sink. This cycle is called convection current.
Boundaries for Tectonic Plates
Convergent Subduction
It is when it moves up and down.
It moves together
It moves side by side
It moves apart.
Overview of Earthquakes
Forces
push rocks against each other
pull rocks apart
push rocks past each another
upward at a reverse fault
making rocks above the fault move
making rocks above the fault move
making rocks move
downward at a normal fault
sideways at a strike slip fault
resulting in the occurrence of
Earthquakes
Earthquakes
5: What kind of waves are responsible for all the damage an earthquake causes?
6: What scale is used to describe the strength of an earthquake?
7: What scale is used to describe is used to describe the amount of damage an earthquake causes?
Seismic waves ( primary waves, secondary waves, and surface waves)
The Richter scale is used to describe thet strength of a earthquake.
The Mercalli scale is used to describe describe the amount of damage an earthquake causes.
Page 2
Forces Inside Earth
Unscramble the vocab.
1: Forces cause sections of Earth`s surface,called
petals
, to move.
2: When rocks break,they move along surfaces called
stufla
.
3: To relieve the
srests
cause by plate movement,rocks tend to bend, compress, or stretch.
4: When rocks are stressed beyond there
staleci
limit they break,move along the faults,and return to there original shapes.
5: An
akquethera
is the vibration produced by the breaking of a rock.
6: At a
roamnl
fault, tension pulls rocks apart.
7: At a
riskte-pils
fault rocks move past each other.
8: At a normal fault, rock above the fault surface
dwdwoanr
in relation to the rock below the fault surface.
9: At a
ereervs
, rocks above the fault surface move up and over the rocks below the fault surface.
10: At a reverse fault,
mnopsericos
forces pushes on rocks from opposite directions.
11:
Earsh
forces can cause strike-slip faults.
plates

faults

stress

clastic

earthquake

normal

strike-slip

downward

reverse

compression


shear
Kinds of Faults
Page 3
Volcanoes and moving plates
Identifying the parts of a volcano
Lava
Ash or Tephra
Crater
Magma Chamber
Vent
Lava/ash
Main Pipe
Three Possible places where a volcanoes can occur. Explain how a volcano can form there and give an example.
1: Convergent boundaries. Where plates com together.The more dense the plate that sinks and is remelted , the less dense plate rises up through the other. Example Mount Saint Helen
2: Divergent boundaries. Where plates are pulled apart this allows magma to rise to thte surface and form new land. Example Iceland's volcanoes
3: Hot spot. A SUPER hot less dense area of magma pushes and melts through the middle of the plate. Example Hawaii
Describe the Ring of Fire in the formation of volcanoes.
The ring of active volcanoes that surrounds the Pacific Ocean.
Types of Volcanoes
Sheild
Cinder cone
Composite
Basalt
Granitic & Andesitic
Basail, Granite & Andsitic
Wide and broad
steep sided
steep side
Lava
Tephra
Lava & Tephra
The more gas in the magma the more explosive the volcanic eruption will be. Therefore making a volcano that has more gas in the magma more dangerous than ones without gas. There is a direct relation ship between the two.
The silica makes magma sticky and thick. Sticky and thick magma makes the eruption more explosive. This is a direct relationship.
A comosite volcano is the most dangerous.
The explosiveness of Magma,silica, and gases.
Thank You for Watching
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