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Sports and Nutrition

My isu for food and nutrition

Andrew Carpino

on 17 June 2010

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Transcript of Sports and Nutrition

Sports and Nutrition Nutrition and fitness are to very closely
related topics The better that we eat the more fuel our body will have. What a proper diet provides you with Fitness Along with eating right being active is very important Types of excersise Aerobic
Involves the use of large muscles groups for long periods of time

Aerobic excersise should be performed daily Benfits of daily aerobic excersise
Increased heart health
Development of lean muscle Determining your intensity or
"RPE" Most popular method is to use a percentage of you age to measure your maximum heart

Subtract your age from 220
(220-20 = 200)
Mulitiply that number by 0.60 and 0.90. This will give you a target range
(200 x 0.60 = 120)
(200x 0.80 = 180)
Where do you fall? The RPE gives you an indication of where you should start and when you should start to cool down. This is done by measuring your pulse
This can be done by counting for 10 seconds
Then mulitply by 6 to find your pulse in a minute Strength Involves things like
Weight lifting
Pull ups/ Push ups
Should only be done 2-3 times a week based on your RPE Strength training is to be done with the purpose of conditioning in mind Use the Set/ Rep method
8-12 reps is a good starting block
Stretching The major excerise would be Yoga When stretching you want to stretch muscle groups anywhere from 10-30 seconds. While repeating 4 times Used as a warm up before performing strength and conditioning. Energy Sources for Excersising Muscles The major source of energy is ATP ATP (Adenosine Tri-Phosphate) is the specific form of energy needed in the muscles How is ATP made? ATP is formed through a process called Phophorilation
Phosphorilation is when an ADP and a Phosphate group come together to Make ATP
ADP+Pi->ATP The ATP is then used to fuel the muscles The food that we eat also contributes to the making of ATP. What happens if the body does not have enough ATP? In this case the body uses Phosphocreatine which is stored in the muscles for quick breakdown to form ATP Phosphocreatine is regarded as the first line of defense in the resupplying of ATP Carbohydrates Carb's are the most important
fuel source for the body Glucose is the the most useful form,
as it is available to all cells Once again glucose is used to form ATP
This process can either be Aerobic or Anerobic depending if oxygen is present or not Anaerobic Breakdown This breakdown produces energy very quickly in the presence of very little oxygen The main product is Pyruvic acid,
which is then stored in the muscles
and converted to lactic acid Benefits
Produces energy quickly
Gives of quick burst of energy Drawback's
Uses alot of energy
Lactic Acid can cause the muscles to cramp Aerobic Breakdown Aerobic breakdown produces a sustanied form of energy for the muscles It uses the pyruvic acid from the anerobic
process and breaks it down further in CO2 and H2O This process makes approximatly 95% of the
ATP in the body The ATP is released slowly over
a long period of time
2min-3 hours Aerobic breakdown is essential
As it prevents fatigue and keeps you mentally
alert FATS Fats give prolonged sources of energy When the fat stores are broken down
they produce fatty acids and a glycerol The majority of the energy comes
from the fatty acids They are released from
the adipose tissue and
broken down through aerobic
respiriation forming CO2 and
H2O The rate at which the muscles use
the energy depends on the concentration
of fatty acids in the blood stream.
Higher concentration, more fat energy Fat energy is very important
in endurance activities because of
its sustainability The main reason for the sustainability
is because the breakdown does not occur
fast enough, to meet ATP requiriments A key advantage of fat is that
we have a lot of it and it supplies a lot
more energy then protein's and carbohydrate's
Protein= 4 kcal
Carb's= 4 kcal
Fat= 9 kcal An example of an athlete who
would rely on fats as the main
energy source would be a weight-
lifter Proteins In actual fact after a weight
session, we should be looking to
have a high carb and moderate protein
meal, as this will replenish the stores Amino Acids are used to
fuel muscles, but they provide
little energy and are used sparingly
Amino Acids contribute 10-15% of energy needs during endurance activities Contrary to popular belief
proteins are used more in
endurace activities than
resistence activities Why is this?
It is thought that this increases
insulin and growth hormone levels
in the blood, providing more energy This being said it is important
to work-out, as simply eating right
will not increase muscle mass. Examples of what stores our body relies on Dietary Advice for Athletes Athletes require much more
energy then a normal person They need to make sure that
are meeting these needs to ensure
that they can perform at optimal
levels Caloric Needs This number varies on the
person and their size and the sport they are playing A smaller person may only
need 1500 kcal, while a more
muscular person may need 4000 kcal How can I tell where
I fall? The easiest way would be
to use the 5 kcal - 8 kcal
rule. This is a rough estimate
of how much energy will be
expended per minute during an
For example a soccer player
7 kcal x 90min= 630 kcal
This simply means that it will
take approximatly 630 kcal to maintain the persons body weight during the time frame A math equation to find your
daily caloric needs For men
66+(6.3xweight(lbs))+(12.9xheight(inches)-(6.8xAge) For women
655 + (4.3 x weight in pounds) + (4.7 x height in inches) - (4.7 x age in years)
After getting that number, then mulitply
by 0.4 if you are sedintary
by 0.6 if you are moderatly active
by 0.8 if you are very active It is important to stay in the
target range to ensure that you
maintain you body weight Carbohydrates Needs Seeing as carb's are the most
important nutrient it is vital
that we adjust our needs accordingly We should be incorperating
lots of complex carbohydrates
as they allow us to replenish
our glycogen stores. 60% of an atheletes daily eating
rountine should be carbohydrates A general rule of thumb for your
daily needs would be to multiply
you weight in Kilograms by 5 If you are performing endurance activities you
want to increase from 5 to 7 If you are running a marathon
it should be increased to 10 It is important to adjust your
carbohydrate needs accordingly
to the amount of energy you will
be expending Carbohydrate Loading Carb loading is mostly
found in those athletes
who perform endurance
activities lasting 60-90
minutes The reason is because
it increases the glycogen
and energy stores in the muscles
Carbo loading consists
of increasing the amount
of carbohydrates taken in
over a period of a week before
the event while gradually
decreasing the amount of excersise
performed There is a downside though,
as loading can also increase
the amount of water in the
muscles which can decrease
Protein Needs This is probably the most
popular topics amongst athletes
today Any typical athlete is recomended
to have between 1.0-1.6 grams per
kilogram of weight We have to be careful
though as excess protein
intake can involve the
use of more amino-acids,
therefore no muscle
protein synthesis can
take place.
Seeing how protein is
mainly needed for
the repairing of muscle
tissue increased amounts
of it are generally not
required Athletes can find their recommened
amount of protein by simply multiplying
their weight in kilograms by 1.0, 1.2, 1.3 etc Increased protein in
the body can result in
urination, and calcium in
the urine, which can also
lead to kidney stones Vitamins and Minerals As with most things, an
athlete requires an increased
amount The main concern for
these needs are vegetarians
and those needing a lower calorie
diet as they may not be getting enough What can be seen as the
greastest need would be that
of Vitamin C and E The main reason is because
of the antioxident benifits Doctors recommend eating
a well balanced diet as
this will make sure you
are getting the vital
vitamins Iron is vital in the
production of red blood
cells and they also play a key role in oxygen transport Iron is very important Calcium also plays an
important role as it fortifies the bones and lowers the risk of breakage Fluids Fluids are perhaps the
most important part of
an athletes dietary needs Water is especially important
as it helps to maintain body
temperature and keep our muscles
hydrated The body produces a lot
of heat when exercising,
so staying hydrated is
vital We also lose a lot
of fluid through sweat A recommended goal for
fluid loss is 2% of ones
body weight So first the athlete
must find what 2% of
there weight and by trial
and error work on finding the
amount of fluid needed to maintain that 2% A general rule of
thumb is for every
pound lost, 2-3 cups
of water should be
consummed A good way to measure
hydration would be to
look at your urine colour:
it should be the colour of
lemonade and no darker Some people may judge
thirst as a measure of
hydration, but in actual fact it is a very late stage of dehydration Ways to stay hydrated before an event
Drink frequently the day before
Drink 1 to 3 cups of water 3 hours before
Throught the game consume 1/2 to 1 cup for every 15 min
After the event consume 2-4 cups of water to replenish
Failure to follow those tips can lead to
Heat exhaustion
Heat cramps
Heat stroke Heat exhaustion
heat stress causes the body to lose fluids
this causes the body to become
fatigued rapidly and the heart to
work much harder
common symptoms include nausea, diziness and a pale skin colour Heat Cramps
often related with heat
occurs in athletes who have
been exersising in hot climates
without replenishing sodium loss
cramps last anywhere from 1-3 min
and can be very painful Heatstroke
this is very dangerous
occurs when the bodies core temperature exceeds 104f
the bodies cooling systems are overloaded
symptoms include nausea, confusion, irritability and even coma
If left unattended can result in death
Sports Drinks Athletes are always asking
if sports drink are good to
consume Sports drinks are only
recommeded for those
activities that exceed
60 min The reason for this
is because carbohydrate
and electrolyte stores are
depleated For those activities
sport drinks offer
these advantages The drinks supply
glucose to the muscles,
thus giving more energy Flavours encourage
the player to drink Electrolytes help to
maintain blood volume
and enhance water and
carb absorbtion in the
GI tract Specialized Dietary Advice for endurance exersise It is recommended to eat light
meals, up to 1000 kcal, 2-4 hours
before an event This will top off all needed
energy stores A meal should be heavy on
carbs and low in fat, with
a good source of protein Some good pre game
foods would be spaghetti,
potatoes, fruit or oatmeal Liquid meal replacements
can also be used as they
are easily broken down As previously mentioned
avoid greasy foods Replenishing Fuel During Endurance Exersise An Example of a Game day Meal Plan Carbohydrates are very
important in endurance
exersise because of the
loss of glycogen in the
muscles This will lead to fatigue
causing performance to
decline To avoid this fatigue,
60-80 grams of carbohydrates
should be consumed per hour Sport bars can also
be helpful in replenishing
as they often are high in
carbohydrates Energy Bar and Gels Nutritional Facts Post Exerise Recovery After exersise one should
consume something sugary
as this will give glucose
to the muscles and allow
them to synthisize glycogen They should also be
comsuming carbohydrates Example post exersise meals Foods high on the
glycemic index are
important because they
can help to build glycogen Protein is also
important as it helps
to repair muscles and
meet caloric needs Once again it is
important to ingest
fluids Ergogenic Aids These aids give the athletes
another source of gaining
muscle or becoming better at
endurance sports without having to do
the work They are illegal and are frowned
upon in the sporting world Some Ergogenic Aids Con't.... THANKS FOR WATCHING!!
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