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ENE 505 PROJECT

a reusable prezi to create your own story
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Yunfei Xiong

on 26 November 2013

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Transcript of ENE 505 PROJECT

• Removal and recovery of metals from mining and metallurgical wastewaters and leachates
• Can extract: hydrogen, nitrogen, ammonium, sulfur, palladium, copper
Formed pure copper crystals with removal efficiencies > 99.88%




• Contain bacteria and organic compounds (glucose, acetate or wastewater)
• Bacteria form biofilm and attach to anode
• Biofilm oxidize organic compounds,and generate electrons and protons.
CO2 is produced in process as an oxidation product.
Anode reaction:


• Protons recombine with oxygen and electrons in the cathode.
• O2 is reduced to H2O
• Platinum catalyst is used to sufficiently reduce oxygen to water.

Cathode reaction:






Microbial Fuel Cell
Single chamber
The PEM or salt bridge separate the anode and cathode.
The anode holds the bacteria and organic material in an anaerobic environment.
The cathode holds a conductive saltwater solution.
The bacteria create protons (H+) and electrons(H-).

Two chamber MFC
Two-chamber
Single-chamber
Types of MFCs
Simpler and more efficient
Omitting the cathode chamber and placing the cathode electrode directly onto the proton exchange membrane (PEM)
Two chamber reactor
cube reactor
Single chamber MFC
bottle reactor
Single chamber MFC
General Overview

Alternative Energy Solutions

• Conventional energy sources contribute to increasing CO2 levels in our atmosphere
• Greenhouses gases are one of the causes of global warming and climate change

Need more environmentally- friendly energy sources

• Drastic increases in energy demand over the last few decades
• Most energy is generated from nonrenewable sources, which is unsustainable

Need for renewable energy solutions

Introduction

Principles/Concept

Aerobic cathodic chamber
Anaerobic anode chamber
• Helps transfer of electrons from the anode to the cathode.



External circuit

• Separate anode and cathode.
• Allow protons pass through from the anode to the cathode.

Proton exchange membrane (PEM)
external circuit
Proton exchange
membrane (PEM)
Components of MFC
Basically, MFC consists of:
• Anaerobic anode chamber
• Aerobic cathodic chamber
• Proton exchange membrane (PEM)
• External circuit



Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC)
• It is a bioreactor that converts the energy from chemical bonds in organic compounds directly into current through catalytic reactions of microorganisms under anaerobic conditions.
• The overall reaction is to break down the organic compounds to CO2 and H2O as well as generate electricity as a by-product.
• Electricity is generated from electron flow from anode to cathode through external circuit.
Advantages/Disadvantages

• Treat all microorganisms as potential pathogens.
• Sterilize equipment and materials.
• Disinfect work areas before and after use.
• Never pipette by mouth.
• Do not eat or drink in the lab, nor store food in areas where microorganisms are stored.
• Label everything clearly.
• Autoclave or disinfect all waste material.
• Clean up spills with care.


Safety?

Disadvantages:
• Low power density
• Longer time to produce energy
• Bacteria losses due to lack of food source
• Brittleness of the materials (i.e. carbon paper electrodes)


Advantages:
• Novel method of making energy
• Decrease the high levels of organic waste
• Materials of constructions are cheap
• Natural product that will not harm the environment


Microorganisms Safety Guide
Applications

• The energy content of wastewater is proportional to the current of the MFC
• Can measure solute concentration
• Conventional BOD test takes 5 days. MFC based BOD sensor takes 40 minutes
• Measured individual acetate, propionate and butyrate concentrations with very high sensitivity (5mgl-1)

Biosensor
• Can generate power with efficiency up to 70%
typical efficiency: ~30%
• Power density: up to 2.77 W/m2
• Useful for powering microelectronics in remote locations (i.e. underwater)
• Pilot projects in rural third world countries with lower energy demands (i.e Ghana, Uganda and Tanzania)

Power Generation
Benefits:
• Has “indefinite” shelf life
• Not dependent on day/night cycle (solar)
• No hazardous waste (nuclear)
• Microbes can survive in harsh environments
Drawbacks:
• Heavy weight
• Low power output

MFC to Power Space Robots
• Wastewater contain 9.3x as much as energy as needed to treat it
• Highly efficient process:
COD and BOD removal efficiency of up to 90.86% and 90.67%, respectively
• Energy efficient method of removing carbon and nitrogen
• Generate 50-90% less excess sludge than traditional aerobic treatment process

Wastewater Treatment
• Power Generation
• Wastewater Treatment
• Biosensor
• Biorecovery
• MFC to Power Space Robots

Applications

Biorecovery
Challenges of MFC

• Performance can change over time due to biofilm growth or biofouling.
• There is the possibility of cathode fouling due to biofilm development.
• Electrode material might be clogged by suspended solids.
• Catalyst poisoning may occur.


Long- term stability
1. High voltage loss or overpotential
2. Scale up difficulties
3. Long term stability
4. Cost


Challenges to Large-Scale Application

Case Study

Including electrode materials, catalysts, separators, buffer agent and operations.
• Silver or gold electrodes might be the best choices to reduce resistivity, but they are too expensive for practical use on large scales.
• Chemical can be used to improve electrode performance, however it will also increases the cost.
Possible solutions
• Bio-electron in which microorganisms are used as catalyst.
• Low-cost and high-efficiency electrode materials


Cost
Can be attributed to internal resistance, substrate diffusion, proton transfer, and mechanical strength.
• The voltage losses might increase with size due to increased electrode spacing and longer distance for proton transfer.
• The separator and air-cathode may be vulnerable and have more leakage under increased hydrostatic pressure.
• Other economic limitations.


Scale Up Difficulties

To increase power output, we need:
• More conductive material
• Highly-active catalysts
• Connect multiple MFCs in series or in parallel


Solution to high voltage loss or overpotential
Can be attributed to:
• The oxidation or reduction reactions at the electrode incur activation overpotential.
• The transfer of electrons through an electrical circuit and ions through the electrolyte result in ohmic loss.
• The supply of substrate or discharge of protons may become limited at high current density or insufficient mixing, leading to concentration overpotential.


High voltage loss or overpotential
• Maximum voltage achieved: 1.6 mV on the third day.
• Then, the voltage decreases as the COD energy is depleted.


Voltage generated
• 80% of COD energy is transferred to hydrogen gas.


Hydrogen production

• COD energy level is decreased from 33,600 J/L to 558 J/L within 6 days.
• The overall COD removal is approximately around 98%.


Results: COD Removal
Case Study
• Conducted by University of Nottingham.
• Types of waste: cow slurry water and cow manure.
• Continuous flow membrane-less 1 m3 MFC
• 3 million L storage tank
• Flow rate: 0.8 L/min.
• Introduction
• Principles/Concept
• Types of MFCs
• Advantages/Disadvantages
• Feasibility/ Comparison with other technology
• Applications
• Case Study
• Challenges and Future Directions
• Conclusion


Anthony Kwong
Chaisiri Patipatranon
Yunfei Xiong
Kullasak Suwantaradon
Xinzhe Zhang


Future Direction

Plant-Microbial Fuel Cell
• Generates electricity while plants grow.
• Bacteria around roots break down organic compound, produce electrons, protons and CO2.
• Electrode is placed close to the roots to absorb electrons.
• Protons pass through PEM and recombine with O2 and electrons, O2 is reduced to H2O.
• CO2 converts to O2 by plants via photosynthesis.
• It currently generates 0.4 W per m2 of plant growth.

• Better understanding of microbiology and manipulation to improve the efficiency.
• Better electrode technologies such as Nanomodified Anodes and Ammonia-Treated Anodes to enhance their electron affinity.
• More types of substrate.
• Integration with other processes.


Future Direction
Questions?
Thank you
Rabaey, K., Lissens, G. and Verstraete, W. (2005), "Microbial fuel cells: performances and perspectives", Biofuels for fuel cells: biomass fermentation towards usage in fuel cells.
Rabaey, Korneel, and Willy Verstraete. "Microbial Fuel Cells: Novel Biotechnology for Energy Generation." Trends in Biotechnology 23.6 (2005): 291-98.
Shelley D. Minteer, (2012) Nanobioelectrocatalysis and Its Applications in Biosensors, Biofuel Cells and Bioprocessing. Topics in Catalysis :, pages -.
S. Wilkinson. "Gastrobots"—Benef​its and Challenges of Microbial Fuel Cells in Food Powered Robot Applications." Autonomous Robots, vol. 9, 2000: 99-111.
T. Pham, K. Rabaey, P. Aelterman, P. Clauwaert, L. De Schamphelaire, N. Boon and W. Verstraete. Microbial fuel cells in relation to conventional anaerobic digestion technology.Engineering in Life Sciences 6(3), pp. 285-292. 2006.
V.B. Oliveira, M. Simões, L.F. Melo, A.M.F.R. Pinto, (2013) Overview on the developments of microbial fuel cells. Biochemical Engineering Journal 73:, pages 53-64.
Venkata Mohan, S., S. Veer Raghavulu, and P.N. Sarma. "Biochemical Evaluation of Bioelectricity Production Process from Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment in a Single Chambered Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) Employing Glass Wool Membrane."Biosensors and Bioelectronics 23.9 (2008): 1326-332.
Wen-Wei Li and Guo-Ping Sheng. Microbial Fuel Cells in Power Generation and Extend Applications. Adv Biochem Engin/Biotechnol, 128, 165-197. doi: 10.1007/10_2011_125
XiaoNan Zhang, Laura Porcu, and John M. Andresen. Sustainable energy from dairy farm waste using a Microbial Fuel Cell. Bioenergy technology. Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University Park, Nottingham.
Yong, P., I.P. Mikheenko, K. Deplanche, F. Sargent, and Lynne E. Macaskie. "Biorecovery of Precious Metals from Wastes and Conversion into Fuel Cell Catalyst for Electricity Production." Advanced Materials Research 71-73 (2009): 729-32.


References
• MFCs take any biodegradable material and convert it to energy using bacteria
• It is a promising technology for the production of electricity while treating wastewater, but it is not feasible as a large scale power plant
• It has low power output, thus it has limited applications
• Much more research needed to improve the performance, reliability, cost and scalability


Conclusion
"Bacteria Used to Produce Electricity." DigitalJournal.com. N.p., 15 Oct. 2013. Web. 1 Nov. 2013.
C. Dillow. "Microbial Fuel Cell Cleans Wastewater, Desalinates Seawater, and Generates Power." Popular Science. Internet: http://www.popsci.co​m/scitech/article/20​09-08/microbial-fuel​-cell-cleans-wastewa​ter-desalinates-seaw​ater-and-generates-p​ower, Sept. 26, 2009.
Di Lorenzo, Mirella, Tom P. Curtis, Ian M. Head, and Keith Scott. "A Single-chamber Microbial Fuel Cell as a Biosensor for Wastewaters." Water Research 43.13 (2009): 3145-154.
Du, Z., Li, H. and Gu, T. (2007). A state of the art review on microbial fuel cells: A promising technology for wastewater treatment and bioenergy. Biotechnology Advances, 25, 464-482.
H. Liu. R. Ramnarayanan. B. E. Logan. “Production of Electricity during Wastewater Treatment Using a Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell.”Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 38, iss. 7, pp. 2281-2285, 2004.
He, Zhen, Fei Zhang, and Zheng Ge. Using Microbial Fuel Cells to Treat Raw Sludge and Primary Effluent for Bioelectricity Generation: Final Report. Rep. Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin- Milwaukee, 2013.
Heijne, Annemiek Ter, Fei Liu, Renata Van Der Weijden, Jan Weijma, Cees J.N. Buisman, and Hubertus V.M. Hamelers. "Copper Recovery Combined with Electricity Production in a Microbial Fuel Cell." Environmental Science & Technology 44.11 (2010): 4376-381.
Hsu, Jeremy. "How NASA May Use Microbes to Power Space Robots." Space.com. NASA, 6 Jan. 2012. Web. 1 Nov. 2013.
J. D. Coates. K. Wrighton. "Microbial Fuel Cells: Plug-in and Power-on Microbiology." Microbe Magazine, 2009.
Kumlanghan, Ampai, Jing Liu, Panote Thavarungkul, Proespichaya Kanatharana, and Bo Mattiasson. "Microbial Fuel Cell-based Biosensor for Fast Analysis of Biodegradable Organic Matter." Biosensors and Bioelectronics 22.12 (2007): 2939-944.
Logan, Bruce E. "Electricity and Hydrogen Production Using Microbial Fuel Cell- Based Technologies." Speech. Penn State. Engineering Environmental Institute, 2 Jan. 2008. Web. 1 Nov. 2013.
Logan, Bruce E. Microbial Fuel Cell. Hoboken N.J.: Wiley-Interscience, 2008. Print.
Lovley, D. R. (2006). Bug juice: Harvesting electricity with microorganisms. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 4, 497-508.

Feasibility/ Comparison with Other Technology
Microbial fuel cell compared with other fuel cell
Microbial fuel cell compared with other fuel cell

Microbial Fuel Cell

Microbial fuel cell compared with other fuel cell

Microbial Fuel Cell

Raw material: 2540 kg/d of coal
Potential power rate: 950 kW
Efficiency: 60%
Size of plant: 800000 ㎡
Cost in total: 1.5M USD+
43000 USD/year

Traditional Power Plant

Cost and Feasibility

Raw material: 7500 kg/d of waste organics
Potential power rate: 950 kW
Efficiency: 30%
MFC Power rate: 1 KW/m³
Size of reactor: 350 m³
Cost in total: 3.5M USD
Energy value: 0.4 M USD/year





Anode
nitrogen
Cathode
oxygen


Advantages:
• Novel method of making energy
• Decrease the high levels of organic waste
• Materials of constructions are cheap
• Natural byproduct that will not harm the environment



Disadvantages:
• Low power density
• Longer time to produce energy
• Bacteria losses due to lack of food source
• Brittleness of the materials (i.e. carbon paper electrodes)

High voltage loss or overpotential
Can be attributed to:
• The oxidation or reduction reactions at the electrode incur activation overpotential.
• The transfer of electrons through an electrical circuit and ions through the electrolyte result in ohmic loss.
• The supply of substrate or discharge of protons may become limited at high current density or insufficient mixing, leading to concentration overpotential.


Solution to high voltage loss or overpotential
To increase power output, we need:
• More conductive material
• Highly-active catalysts
• Connect multiple MFCs in series or in parallel


Scale Up Difficulties
Can be attributed to internal resistance, substrate diffusion, proton transfer, and mechanical strength.
• The voltage losses might increase with size due to increased electrode spacing and longer distance for proton transfer.
• The separator and air-cathode may be vulnerable and have more leakage under increased hydrostatic pressure.
• Other economic limitations.


Long- term stability
• Performance can change over time due to biofilm growth or biofouling.
• There is the possibility of cathode fouling due to biofilm development.
• Electrode material might be clogged by suspended solids.
• Catalyst poisoning may occur.


Cost
Including electrode materials, catalysts, separators, buffer agent and operations.
• Silver or gold electrodes might be the best choices to reduce resistivity, but they are too expensive for practical use on large scales.
• Chemical can be used to improve electrode performance, however it will also increases the cost.
Possible solutions
• Bio-cathode in which microorganisms are used as catalyst.
• Low-cost and high-efficiency electrode materials


References
"Bacteria Used to Produce Electricity." DigitalJournal.com. N.p., 15 Oct. 2013. Web. 1 Nov. 2013.
C. Dillow. "Microbial Fuel Cell Cleans Wastewater, Desalinates Seawater, and Generates Power." Popular Science. Internet: http://www.popsci.co​m/scitech/article/20​09-08/microbial-fuel​-cell-cleans-wastewa​ter-desalinates-seaw​ater-and-generates-p​ower, Sept. 26, 2009.
Di Lorenzo, Mirella, Tom P. Curtis, Ian M. Head, and Keith Scott. "A Single-chamber Microbial Fuel Cell as a Biosensor for Wastewaters." Water Research 43.13 (2009): 3145-154.
Du, Z., Li, H. and Gu, T. (2007). A state of the art review on microbial fuel cells: A promising technology for wastewater treatment and bioenergy. Biotechnology Advances, 25, 464-482.
H. Liu. R. Ramnarayanan. B. E. Logan. “Production of Electricity during Wastewater Treatment Using a Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell.”Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 38, iss. 7, pp. 2281-2285, 2004.
He, Zhen, Fei Zhang, and Zheng Ge. Using Microbial Fuel Cells to Treat Raw Sludge and Primary Effluent for Bioelectricity Generation: Final Report. Rep. Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin- Milwaukee, 2013.
Heijne, Annemiek Ter, Fei Liu, Renata Van Der Weijden, Jan Weijma, Cees J.N. Buisman, and Hubertus V.M. Hamelers. "Copper Recovery Combined with Electricity Production in a Microbial Fuel Cell." Environmental Science & Technology 44.11 (2010): 4376-381.
Hsu, Jeremy. "How NASA May Use Microbes to Power Space Robots." Space.com. NASA, 6 Jan. 2012. Web. 1 Nov. 2013.
J. D. Coates. K. Wrighton. "Microbial Fuel Cells: Plug-in and Power-on Microbiology." Microbe Magazine, 2009.
Kumlanghan, Ampai, Jing Liu, Panote Thavarungkul, Proespichaya Kanatharana, and Bo Mattiasson. "Microbial Fuel Cell-based Biosensor for Fast Analysis of Biodegradable Organic Matter." Biosensors and Bioelectronics 22.12 (2007): 2939-944.
Logan, Bruce E. "Electricity and Hydrogen Production Using Microbial Fuel Cell- Based Technologies." Speech. Penn State. Engineering Environmental Institute, 2 Jan. 2008. Web. 1 Nov. 2013.
Logan, Bruce E. Microbial Fuel Cell. Hoboken N.J.: Wiley-Interscience, 2008. Print.
Lovley, D. R. (2006). Bug juice: Harvesting electricity with microorganisms. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 4, 497-508.
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