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The Three Chinese Philosophies

Confucianism, Taoism, & Legalism
by

Phuc Do

on 7 June 2014

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Transcript of The Three Chinese Philosophies

The Three Chinese Philosophies


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Confucius
(KongFuzi)
Founded Confucianism
Laozi
Created Daoism (Taoism).
Hanfeizi (Guanzi)
The Inventor of Legalism
Daoism is based on the Chinese way of Dao. The Dao gave natural order to the universe They believed that people gained happiness by living in harmony with nature. To the Daoists, nature is full of opposites. You need to balance the opposites like life and death. This is called Yin (Shadow) and Yang (Sunlit). Taoists believed that people should have a simple life of meditating and should not care about fame, knowledge, or power. Daoist believed that everyone must discover the way of the Dao for themselves, so emperors must rule as little as possible.
"The most amazing things that can happen to a human being will happen to you if you just lower your expectations" ~ Phil Dunphy.
The third philosophy is Legalism.Legalism was based on the teachings of Hanfeizi. Legalism was based on the idea that people are greedy. Legalists stated that people always pursue on their own self-interest. They couldn't rely on each other to set good influence on one another therefore, it's bad for rulers to set a good example. Instead, they reward the good behavior and punish bad behavior. Civilians should be watched carefully and punished if doing a poor job and people caught criticizing should be banished. Rulers should have absolute power and should trust no one!!!
Chapter 21
Confucianism
Daoism(Taoism)
Legalism
The Zhou Dynasty
Sources

Phuc Do, Eric Bui, & Ben Tran
Any
Questions?
Confucianism is based on the teachings of KongFuzi, or Confucius by us westerners. The philosophy influenced the Chinese Government & culture deeply. The goal of Confucianism was to have a peaceful and just community.
Confucius taught that society will work well as soon as people acted proper with their roles and relationships with others. According to Confucianism, there are 5 basic relationships: ruler and subject, husband and wife, father and son, older and younger sibling, & friend and friend. Everybody must obey and respect those above them. In return, the ones with more authority than them will have to be a good role model.You should all be wise, honest, kind, and faithful. Confucius once taught something that we still say today. Such as, don't do to others what you wouldn't do to yourself and respect your elders. It had a big effect on the government because civil servants had to be hired on how well they know the Chinese classics.
Confucius founded Confucianism. He was born in the state of Lu in eastern China in 551 B.C.E. . Confucius said that he would set his heart on learning at the age of 15. He saw chaos when lords fought for power and land. His own state L was invaded many times during 722 through 481 B.C.E. Confucius respected Chinese traditions such as reverence towards our ancestors and honor for scholars, but he also saw that society needed to change, if there were to have peace and harmony. Confucius wanted to teach men(not women) to work as a reliable and honest government officials. After Confucius had died in 479 B.C.E., his scholars collected his ideas into a book called "The Analects" and developed the philosophy Confucianism.
Laozi was the founder of Taoism. He was born on 604 B.C.E. in the Ku Country of China and died in 531 B.C.E. He worked as an adviser for many years. When he was ninety years old, he decided to leave China on a water buffalo and was stopped by a guard when he arrived at the Chinese border. The guard was upset that Laozi's wisdom would be lost to China, so he asked Laozi to write down his thoughts. Laozi wrote a manuscript called "Dao De Jing" that has 5,000 characters. One of the passages says “When the country is ruled with a light hand, the people are simple, But if a country is ruled with a severity, the people become cunning.”
Hanfeizi was a son in the royal family in the state of Han. He lived from 280-233 B.C.E. He lived to witness the finale of the Warring States period and the Zhou Dynasty. Like Confucius, he wanted to bring peace into society, but he thought his teachings were irrelevant. Hanfeizi died after he was ordered to commit suicide with poison by the chief minister of Qin, Li Si. He killed HanFeizi because he was afraid that the king would favor HanFeizi over himself. Many of his ideas are in a book called
HanFeizi.
" He who trusts will be controlled by others"~HanFeizi
The 6th Grade History Alive
book
www.britannica.com
Wikipedia
www.chinahighlights.com
In 1045 B.C.E., the Zhou overthrew the Shang and created a new dynasty. The kings claimed that they had been given the Mandate of Heaven which gave him the right to rule China. If the king was ruling poorly, Heaven would send down disasters. This would mean that the king’s family will be overthrown. They also had a system of relationships called feudalism. It is when the king owns all of the land, but gave parts of it to his lords who sent support to the king, when he was attacked. The peasants had the lord’s protection, but had to give a portion of their crops to the lord. Throughout 770 B.C.E. and 453 B.C.E. (The Warring Period), many ambitious lords began to group up and made wars with other lords. These wars cause many years of disorder to China. These troubles led scholars to ask questions about the best way to have peace and order. The ideas that were suggested were called "Hundred Schools of Thought". The three most influential ideas were from the philosophies Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism. In 256 B.C.E.,the Zhou was conquered by the Qin.
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