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Mi'kmaq

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Olivia R

on 30 April 2013

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Transcript of Mi'kmaq

Mi'kmaq Economic Part Of Life In Mi'maq tradition, women are given the highest respect. The Mi'kmaq had a matriarchal society so the women's voice was heard very clearly when important decisions had to be made. A woman's roles and participation in ceremonies governed in some way by their unique gift. The Mi'kmaq women experience what is called 'moon time'. When this happens her connection with the earth is extremely strong and energies are flowing through her into the earth. She also shouldn't touch anyone's sacred objects because she would drain the life from those objects and they would be neutral. Women also don't usually go to the Sweat Lodge or fast but sometimes they would go to the Sweat Lodge for a healing Sweat or go on fast for a vision. Homes and Shelter Roles of Men Mi'kmaq men were hunters and fisherman, and sometimes went to war to protect their families.
Both men and women took part in storytelling, artwork, music, and religious festivals. Even though it was a matriarchal society the chiefs were always men and since men had the role of the protector, they interacted with other groups. So when the Europeans arrived they thought the Mi'kmaq was patriarchal since they were always dealing with the men of the tribe. Spirituality and Ceremonies
In the Mi'kmaq tribe they believed that everything in the world was living and earned respect, including humans, animals, rocks, and dirt. All Mi'kmaqs honored that
belief. The Creator was believed to be good and kind and made everything. The Mi'kmaq never took anything from nature without the Creator's guidance. Land of Souls was believed to be the where people went after death. Once you entered the Land of Souls you would be welcomed by ancestors and the Creator. The Evil Spirits made bad things happen, like disease and hunger. Getting an eagles feather is s a great virtue. For Mi'kmaqs feathers are sacred especially an eagle's feather. Eagles feather are sacred because eagles fly so high it is the only creature to touch the Creator. Roles of Children Mi'kmaq children would play with other children, go to school and help around the house. Sometimes they would go hunting and fishing with their fathers. The Mi'kmaq children normally had more chores and less time to play though. But they had dolls and other toys to play with. Education Of Children Clothing

Mi'kmaq men and women both wore robes made from animal hides and furs in the cold weather.Women would wrap their robes around their body under their arms, then tie it with a belt.Men would wear their robes around their body under their shoulders like a blanket.Men and women also both wore leggings.Leggings were made out of moose and caribou skins.To wear the leggings, it was tied up at their waist.Both wore headbands with feathers and beads on their heads.Women would sometimes wear pointed hats instead of a headdress.Men wore breethcloths that were hung from their waist.Everyone wore moccasins.Moccasins were made out of animal skins and were decorated with beads or quills.To keep babies warm, they would wrap them in furs from swan, fox, and goose. Mi'kmaq children were educated in their traditions by listening to stories told by their elders. Stories were told orally, instead of being written down. The oldest people in the villages also told the children how everything came to be.

In the early 1900's Mi'kmaq children were taken far away from their homes and sent to schools run by the government and churches. The children were sometimes abused or punished for speaking Mi'kmaq or practicing Mi'kmaq traditions. But later on the government closed down all the residential schools. Vision Quests
Vision Quests prepared the Mi'kmaq for an important life transition. Vision Quests can signify childhood to adulthood or to fulfill a better idea of the Creator. A Vision Quest is not limited to Mi'kmaqs of specific age or sex unlike some Mi'kmaq ceremonies. Vision Quests usually requires that the person goes into the wilderness until they earn a vision, but it is not always needed to earn a vision. The quest can be used to escape the modern life or to try and live a more balanced life from then on.
Roles After Marriage
The men protected the community while the women collected plants for meals and supervised the camps and children. Sometimes when the men were out hunting the women took over their roles. Until the men came back they fished to take care of the rest of the family. Religious Part of Life By: Erica Shamans
Shamans were religious people who were believed to have special power, they had shamans in the community who cured illness and removed evil spirits. The Sweat Lodge was a spiritual community place. Praying would begin as soon as people entered. Four to twelve people would pray at one time. The Mi'kmaq went to pray and purify the mind and body. They would sit around the fire pit and pray.There were set times called "rounds" when the door could open for others to cool down from all the heat because the objective was to sweat. Sweating removed impurities from the body. The Mi'kmaqs who took part would leave feeling cleansed. The Mi'kmaq lived in homes called wigwams.They designed wigwams to be built quickly and moved easily.Wigwams took about one day to build and could easily be taken apart.The Mi'kmaq built the frame of a wigwam using poles that were made out of spruce. A wigwam was shaped like a cone or a dome.It was then covered in birchbark so water wouldn't come in.There was a fire pit placed in the center of a wigwam for warmth.Families would stay dry inside of their wigwam even if it snowed or rained.A large wigwam could hold as much as fifteen people.Women were mostly the ones who helped build the wigwams. By:Alyson Bones and wood were used to make sewing needles.Things such as animal claws,bones, and teeth were sewn into clothing for decorations. Transportation

Water travel was one of the most important things in the Mi'kmaq life.The Mi'kmaq relied on birchbark canoes for water travel.They designed canoes a certain shape so that it would allow them to use the canoes at sea and in streams.They handcrafted their canoes with birchbark.Their canoes had raised ends and wide bottoms.The sides were curved upward.The Mi'kmaq traveled the land by foot in the summer.They used snowshoes to travel in the winter.The snowshoes had a wide paddle so they could walk on top of deep snow.Snowshoes also helped the Mi'kmaq hunt animals in the winter. Hunting, Gathering, and Food The Mi'kmaq mostly got their food from the sea and forests.They moved every few months to places were certain animals could be found.They ate sea animals such as sturgeon, salmon, walrus, whale, eel, seal, lobster, and squid.Their meat came animals such as caribou, moose,beaver, porcupine, and other small animals.Roots, berries, and other edible plants were gathered in the summer.They hunted seals along the coast in January.The Mi'kmaq hunted caribou and other game from February to March.In April, they went back to the coast so they could catch herring.In December, they went ice fishing to catch cod.Their meat and fish were both smoked and dried to preserve it. Daily Part
Of Life Social Part
Of Life Language Roles of Women The Mi'kmaq language comes from the Algonquian language family. The language has 11 consonants: t, k, q, j, s, l, m, n, w, y. And five vowels: a, e, i, o, u. It i s a very descriptive language. Most of the words are verbs so they relate to the actions of people and animals.
The Mi'maq wrote messages called hieroglyphics which were scratched onto a birchbark and animal hides. A hieroglyphic is a picture telling a story. Political Part of Life By: Erica Each Mi'kmaq tribe governed themselves with laws, police and services. Kind of like a small country. The leader of every Mi'kmaq tribe is the Cheif. The Cheif is chosen by council members. Usually they picked one of the previous Chief's son or nephew. The mi'kmaqs had a complex system of government. The political was Local Chief, District Chief and the Grand Chief. The "Council of Elders" were the governing body of the village but the Local Cheif ruled over the "Council of Elders". Every Mi'kmaq community was part of a bigger district, and every district had a chief who was the Saqamaw. The Saqamaw was most respected person in the entire district and oversaw all of the other local cheifs. The Local Chief provided dogs for the chase, canoes for transportation, supplies for hunting and when needed emergency food supplies. Mi'kmaq tribe is a patriarchal society. Tribes are driven together by a typical system of partillineal clans. Authority is usually given by the size of a men's family. Important decisions were mad by the elder of each tribe at seasonal meetings called Grand Council. Land and Environment The Mi'kmaq did very little farming, but they were very skilled hunters, gatherers,and fishers.
They used tools such as bow and arrows and spears to hunt forest animals.Some of the things that they used to make tools were animal claws, teeth, bones, fur, feathers, quills, leather, stones, wood, shells, and clay.But they used weirs to catch fish.They used many items from natural world to build tools.Knife blades were made from chipping at stones to give them sharp edges.Then they would take the sharp stone and attach it to a wooden stick to create an axe.One of the animals the Mi'kmaq hunted was moose.They used a special trick to lure moose.They used a birchbark horn that would make a sound very similar to a moose call. How The Rabbit Got Its Long Ears A long time ago when Rabbit was first on this earth he had very short ears. One day he had nothing to do. He was very bored so he decided to play a trick on all the other animal's.

He told Beaver, "Did you know that the sun was not going to rise again?"

Of course Beaver told Squirrel and Squirrel told Chipmunk and Chipmunk told Skunk and so on. The story soon got around and all the animals were worried.

The animals were all upset. They said, "If the sun is not going to shine anymore it will be dark and cold like winter. We will have to gather our food and get ready right now. Even Bear was worried. He began to eat and eat the blueberries around him so he could grow fat and store his food. Squirrel was busy gathering all the nuts he could find. Everyone was busy getting ready for the sun not to shine again. They had no time to play even though it was a nice summer day.

Now Rabbit really thought this was funny. He hide in the bushes. He was laughing and laughing as he watched the other animals all running around trying to get ready for the sun not to shine anymore.

Along came Kluskap. Normally the animals were all very glad to see Kluskap. They usually gathered around to talk to him. But this day no one run up to greet him. Kluskap asked Bear, "How are you? How is everything going?"

Bear said, "I don't have time to talk to you." "What's wrong with you? You're not talking to me. What is going on? Talk to me. Something is wrong!" Kluskap said.

"Well, don't you know?" Bear said. "The sun is not going to shine anymore and we have to hurry up. I have to get ready for winter now. That is what everyone is doing."

Kluskap told bear, "Whoever told you that story is lying. It's not true."

So Kluskap called a meeting with all the animals and they all gathered around him in a circle.

He got to the bottom of it.

He said, "Who told you Bear?"

Bear said, "Raccoon told me."

And Raccoon said, "Well, Chipmunk told me."

Everyone said who they heard the story from, all the way down to Beaver.

Beaver said, "It was Rabbit that told me."

Kluskap said, "Well, where is Rabbit?" Rabbit was really scared so he hid in the bushes. Kluskap knew for sure then that Rabbit had started the story.

"Where is Rabbit?" he asked again.

"Not here. He is gone. He must be hiding," Beaver said.

Kluskap went and looked in the bushes. He found Rabbit and when he did he grabbed him by his ears and lifted him up.

That is how Rabbit got his long ears. Storytelling The Mi'kmaq liked to entertain eachother through storytelling. They used it as a way to share information. The art of storytelling has been passed down for generations.

The beating of the drum signalled the start of storytelling session. Some stories could be hours long. Power is a main theme in Mi'kmaq stories. Their stories explore how power is used, lost and gained. Arts The Mi'kmaq were creative craftspeople. Their crafts went from everyday use to works of art soon after they made contact with Europeans. By the 1600s Mi'kmaq women were making crafts to trade with the Europeans. They began by trading woven baskets made from ash, maple, and poplar trees. For years they traded for European goods. And by the 19th century the Mi'kmaq were travelling to cities to sell their baskets at markets. The Mikmaq lived near oceans, lakes and streams, so water travel was important. To travel by water they used birchbark canoes; Their canoes had wide bottoms with raised ends and the sides curved upwards. This shape allowed the Mikmaq to use their canoes at sea and in streams. In the summer the Mikmaq travelled the land by foot. But in the winter they used snowshoes. The wide paddle of the snowshoes helped the Mikmaq walk on top of deep snow without sinking. The Mikmaq still use snowshoes today. Mi'kmaq Vegetation
The Mi'kmaq diet was mostly fish, shellfish, marine mammals such as seal and whale. Moose, deer, caribou and other small prey like rabbit, beaver, muskrat, porcupine and squirrels were also hunted and eaten. Spruce grouse, geese and ducks were already taken. They preserved the meat and fish by smoking them and drying them. The Mi'kmaqs fished all year because in the summer they could fish in the lakes and in the winter ice fishing supplied lots of fresh caught fish and eel. There were lots of fish the Mi'kmaq caught and ate some were salmon, sturgeon, whale, walrus, seals, lobster, squid, and seabirds with their eggs made up a great amount of their diet. In the summer the Mi'kmaqs gathered roots, berries and edible plants. Mi'kmaq Warrior Dance Mi'kmaq Climate
There isn't much to say about the Mi'kmaq climate. In the winter it was very cold, so cold that the water would freeze over. In the summer it got so warm that the Mi'kmaq were barefoot most of the time. Bibliography
Social Part of Life-Olivia-
April 2013
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_male_and_female_roles_in_a_micmac_society
April 2013
http://www.muiniskw.org/pgCulture2g.htm
http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/settlement/kids/021013-2091.10-e.html
http://www.bigorrin.org/mikmaq_kids.htm
April 2013
Christine Webster.
Canadian Aboriginal Art and Culture-Mi'kmaq
Weigl publishing 2008.
April 2013
Christine Webster.
Mi'kmaq
Weigl publishing 2010
Economic Part of Life-Alyson
April 2013
Canadian Aboriginal Peoples of Canada
Christine Webster
Weigl publishing 2008.
April 2013
Canadian Aboriginal Art and Culture
Christine Webster
Weigl publishing 2008.
Political Part of Life-Erica
April 2013
http://www.bigorrin.org/mikmaq_kids.htma-
April 2013
http://wiki.answers.com/http://www.bigorrin.org/mikmaq_kids.htm
Religious Part of Life-Erica-
April 2013
Canadian Aboringinal Art and Culture by Christine Webster
Weigl publishing 2008.
Daily Life-Olivia-
April 2013
http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/settlement/kids/021013-2091.10-e.html
April 2013
Christine Webster.
Canadian Aboriginal Art and Culture-Mi'kmaq
Weigl publishing 2008.
April 2013
Christine Webster.
Mi'kmaq
Weigl publishing 2010.
Land and Environment-
Olivia-
April 2013
http://museum.gov.ns.ca/arch/infos/mikmaq1.htm
April 2013
Christine Webster.
Canadian Aboriginal Art and Culture-Mi'kmaq
Weigl publishing 2008.
April 2013
Christine Webster.
Mi'kmaq
Weigl publishing 2010.
Alyson-Resources
April 2013
Canadian Aboriginal Art and Culture
Christine Webster
Weigl publishing 2008.
Erica- vegetation+climate
April 2013
http://wiki.answers.com/ Resources
The Mi'kmaq had a lot of different resources.They mostly ate forest animals and sea animals, so the forest, sea, rivers, lakes, and streams were very important to them.The Mi'kmaq lived in wigwams.To build a wigwam, they would have to use things such as spruce poles, wood, and birchbark.They would also use most of the same items to make their canoes to travel.
The Mi'kmaq would use forest animal furs and skins to make clothing.Beads were used for decorations.Tools such as bow and arrows and spears were used to hunt animals.
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