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Properties of Matter

Kira and Campbell Small
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on 16 November 2016

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Transcript of Properties of Matter

Properties of Matter
Mrs. Flores
What is a Chemical Reaction?
The chemical Formulas of the
molecules must change!
A Chemical Reaction occurs between elements or molecules
What are all the different kinds of atoms?
All Elements have:
a freezing temperature
a melting temperature and,
a boiling temperature
Atoms combine together to form larger molecules
All Matter is made up of either pure elements/(just one type of atom) or combinations of atoms.

All the known types of atoms are listed in the periodic table of the elements.
 
What is Volume?
Mass is how much matter something has, not how much it weighs.

Weight changes with gravity and some places have more gravity and some places have less gravity.
What is Mass?


All Matter has:

Volume

And

Mass
What does all matter have in common?
Liquids: water (most comon liquid), milk, mercury, lava

Solids: rocks, earth, houses, ice

Gasses: Air, water vapor, natural gas, helium, hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide…

Plasmas: Lightning, neon light, northern lights


Non-newtonian fluids: A hybrid between solid and liquid; in liquid form, when suddenly impacted by a force, it turns to solid.
Solids have a Fixed volume,
and a Fixed shape,
where the particles (either atoms or molecules) are packed together tightly
Solids – rocks, Earth, houses, ice,moon…
Liquid – water, milk, mercury, liquid lava,…
Liquid is a state of matter in which the particles are a little further apart, allowing for more movement (which is why liquids can change shape).

Liquids have a fixed volume but they take on the shape of their container.
Volume
changes and
Shape
changes

Gas particles always push outward on space or container.
Gas spreads to fill the space
gas particles can pack closer together when there is less space but more PRESSURE from pushing!
like pumping air into a tire
blowing up a plastic balloon- what happens if you let go while blowing it up?
Gas – Air, water vapor, natural gas, helium, hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide…
4 States of Matter
EXPERIMENTS!
Hand-warmers

Cold-Packs

Which is which?
What is Matter Made of?
What are all the different kinds of Matter?
Molecules, Atoms and Subatomic particles
Two Hydrogen Atoms +
One Oxygen Atom
combine to form:
1 Water Molecule (H2O)
HYDROGEN ATOM
PROTONS, NEUTRONS and ELECTRONS are made of even smaller subatomic QUANTUM particles!
PROTONS, NEUTRONS and ELECTRONS are made of even smaller subatomic QUANTUM particles!
ATOMS are made of SUBATOMIC particles PROTONS, NEUTRONS and ELECTRONS
ATOMS are made of SUBATOMIC particles PROTONS, NEUTRONS and ELECTRONS
MOLECULES are made of different combinations of ATOMS
MOLECULES are made of different combinations of ATOMS
atom
Electron
neutron
…….?????
Lepton
Muon
Quarks
Proton
atom
Molecule
atom
Electron
neutron
…….?????
Lepton
Muon
Quarks
Proton
atom
Molecule
MOLECULES are made of different combinations of ATOMS
ATOMS are made of SUBATOMIC particles PROTONS, NEUTRONS and ELECTRONS
PROTONS, NEUTRONS and ELECTRONS are made of even smaller subatomic QUANTUM particles!
MOLECULES!,
but what are they made of??

What are all the different kinds of Matter?
Molecules, Atoms and Subatomic particles
Two Hydrogen Atoms +
One Oxygen Atom
combine to form:
1 Water Molecule (H2O)
HYDROGEN ATOM
PROTONS, NEUTRONS and ELECTRONS are made of even smaller subatomic QUANTUM particles!
PROTONS, NEUTRONS and ELECTRONS are made of even smaller subatomic QUANTUM particles!
ATOMS are made of SUBATOMIC particles PROTONS, NEUTRONS and ELECTRONS
ATOMS are made of SUBATOMIC particles PROTONS, NEUTRONS and ELECTRONS
MOLECULES are made of different combinations of ATOMS
MOLECULES are made of different combinations of ATOMS
atom
Electron
neutron
…….?????
Lepton
Muon
Quarks
Proton
atom
Molecule
atom
Electron
neutron
…….?????
Lepton
Muon
Quarks
Proton
atom
Molecule
MOLECULES are made of different combinations of ATOMS
ATOMS are made of SUBATOMIC particles PROTONS, NEUTRONS and ELECTRONS
PROTONS, NEUTRONS and ELECTRONS are made of even smaller subatomic QUANTUM particles!
What are all the different kinds of Matter?
Molecules, Atoms and Subatomic particles
Two Hydrogen Atoms +
One Oxygen Atom
combine to form:
1 Water Molecule (H2O)
HYDROGEN ATOM
PROTONS, NEUTRONS and ELECTRONS are made of even smaller subatomic QUANTUM particles!
PROTONS, NEUTRONS and ELECTRONS are made of even smaller subatomic QUANTUM particles!
ATOMS are made of SUBATOMIC particles PROTONS, NEUTRONS and ELECTRONS
ATOMS are made of SUBATOMIC particles PROTONS, NEUTRONS and ELECTRONS
MOLECULES are made of different combinations of ATOMS
MOLECULES are made of different combinations of ATOMS
atom
Electron
neutron
…….?????
Lepton
Muon
Quarks
Proton
atom
Molecule
atom
Electron
neutron
…….?????
Lepton
Muon
Quarks
Proton
atom
Molecule
MOLECULES are made of different combinations of ATOMS
ATOMS are made of SUBATOMIC particles PROTONS, NEUTRONS and ELECTRONS
PROTONS, NEUTRONS and ELECTRONS are made of even smaller subatomic QUANTUM particles!
What are all the different kinds of Matter?
Molecules, Atoms and Subatomic particles
Two Hydrogen Atoms +
One Oxygen Atom
combine to form:
1 Water Molecule (H2O)
HYDROGEN ATOM
atom
neutron
…….?????
Lepton
Muon
Quarks
Proton
atom
Molecule
MOLECULES are made of different combinations of ATOMS
ATOMS are made of SUBATOMIC particles PROTONS, NEUTRONS and ELECTRONS
PROTONS, NEUTRONS and ELECTRONS are made of even smaller subatomic QUANTUM particles!
atom
neutron
…….?????
Lepton
Muon
Quarks
atom
Molecule
What is Radioactivity
Sulfuric Acid and sugar dehydrates the sugar and creates carbbon + water
.
This is the number of Protons in the nucleus
The atomic weight is the weight of all of the
protons, neutrons and electrons.
Is the abbreviation of the
Radioactive Elements
Sugar is a Carbo-Hydrate
(carbon) + (water)

Sulfuric Acid Seprates the water from the carben

.
What does Matter
look like? What forms
does it take?

The noble gasses:


The noble gasses are gasses
that dont want to make
compounds with other
gasses
In a chemical reaction, the atoms in the molecules are re-arranged, but do not change themselves.

In a nuclear reaction the atoms themselves get changed
Hydrogen Balloons!
Sodium Hydroxide (Lye Drain Cleaner) +
Aluminum Foil makes a lot
of hydrogen gas. We can use this
to fill up balloons!
Conservation
of matter

- same as the conservation of mass
- chemical reactions don't make the chemicals any
lighter, even though they may change alot:
color
liquid/solid to gas
heat up or cool down
http://www.ptable.com
Elemental Decay: How radioactive elements change
to others over time.

definition- as the
unstable elements
emit radiation the elements atomic weight is adjusted until its considered to be a stable element.
Release of
nuclear energy

definition- its when a radioactive element emits particles:
Exothermic Reactions
Defintion-This is when a reaction
releases heat.

Example- Like when you burn something you are releasing heat,
therefore it's an exothermic reactions.
Exothermic and Endothermic
Reactions
-All chemical reactions are either endothermic or exothermic reactions
Endothermic Reactions
definition- This is a reaction
that uses/removes heat as a part of the reaction.

Example- vinegar
and baking soda gets colder
geiger counter

- can detect gamma, alpha, beta and neutron radiation.
- used to search for radioactive sources
Makes pure hydrogen gas (the lightest element) from 2
different compounds
(molecules)
reacting

.
How radioactivity can damage your body
Ionizing radiation
non-Ionizing radiation
This kind of radiation
is bad for you, because
it can strip the electrons from your atoms, and that process can damage your cells.
This kind of radiation does
not damage the cells in the same way however, it can heart you in different
ways
How radioactivity can help to kill cancer cells
changes form,
doesn't change chemical formula!

examples:
ice --> water --> steam, still H2O

freezing, melting, and boiling points of all the elements: elements don't change their atoms, just their physical form

Diet Coke + mentos!
changes chemical formula!

Examples:
baking soda + vinegar
sulfuric acid + sugar -> carbon
Lye + aluminum + water --> hydrogen!
Fire!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Cars burning Gasoline
Digestion of food!
Breathing (Goes for humans and plants alike.)
Physical changes:
Chemical Reactions
However, Nuclear reactions do change mass, because
you change the atoms from one type
to another
Identifying Substances
we can use

Density
melting/boiling/freezing points
conductivity
color

to identify various substances.

Molecules
ATOMS
ATOMS
PROTONS
NEUTRONS
ELECTRONS
All elements from Polonium and above
(atomic number 84)
are radioactive.

Some elements below 84 have radioactive isotopes

Their nucleui are
UNSTABLE, because the
number of neutrons is greater
than the number of protons

If they are unstable, they can emit
radiation
Radioactivity is the subatomic particles and energy that are emitted from radioactive elements
alpha
beta
gamma
neutron

Half - life
The amount of time that
it takes for a radioactive element to lose half of its energy

Rule-Breaker!
Nuclear Chain Reaction
Ping Pong Balls are neutrons
Mousetraps are atom's nucleus
Fission
Chain Reactions

exponential growth
definition: every time a neutron hits
a nucleus, it makes two more, and they make 4 more .....
y = 2^x
Let's listen to radiation!
THE END
Thanks for your attention!
Full transcript