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Introduction to Electricity

Matthayom 2 Supplementary Science

SBWEP Saraburi

on 29 July 2012

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Transcript of Introduction to Electricity

Electricity Supplementary Science
Matthayom 3 Lesson 2 The property of matter and radiation that is manifest as a capacity to perform work (such as causing motion or the interaction of molecules) Forms of Energy Mechanical Energy Potential Energy Chemical Energy Radiant Energy Nuclear Energy Thermal Energy Electrical Energy Mechanical energy is the most familiar form of energy. It is the energy a substance or system has because of its motion. Every moving object has mechanical energy, whether it is a hammer driving a nail, a leaf falling from a tree, or a rocket flying in space. Mechanical energy pulls, pushes, twists, turns and throws.

Machines use mechanical energy to do work. Our bodies also use mechanical energy to perform motions such as throwing a ball or moving a pencil to write on paper. Consider a book sitting on a table. The book is said to have "potential energy" because if it is nudged off, gravity will accelerate the book, giving the book kinetic energy. Because the Earth's gravity is necessary to create this kinetic energy, and because this gravity depends on the Earth being present, we say that the "Earth-book system" is what really possesses this potential energy, and that this energy is converted into kinetic energy as the book falls. Energy stored in the bonds between atoms in molecules is chemical energy.
For example, in photosynthesis plants take in radiant energy from sunlight. This solar energy is stored in complex chemical compounds such as starches and sugars. The stored energy is released when these compounds break down into simpler compounds. Thermal energy is the energy a substance or system has related to its temperature, i.e., the energy of moving or vibrating molecules. Atoms and molecules, the smallest particles of any substance, are always in motion. The motion of thermal energy is usually not visible, but we can feel or see its effects. We use thermal energy to cook our food and heat our homes, and we use it to generate electricity. Atoms absorb energy from an outside source and release (or "emit") this energy as electromagnetic radiation. This radiation can be in the form of waves of many different wavelengths or frequencies. A release of nuclear energy occurs when the nuclei of atoms are changed. Hydrogen and uranium are two kinds of matter used to produce nuclear energy. In a nuclear reaction, the tremendous binding energy inside a hydrogen or uranium nucleus is released. Electrical energy is the energy carried by moving electrons in an electric conductor. It cannot be seen, but it is one of our most useful forms of energy because it is relatively easy to transmit and use.
All matter consists of atoms, and every atom contains one or more electrons, which are always moving. When electrons are forced along a path in a conducting substance such as a wire, the result is energy called electricity. Sources of Electrical Energy Electrical Generator Electrical Generator Bike Dynamo Batteries Solar Cells Animals
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