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Biology-Ch. 18

Tracy Carlson

on 28 April 2014

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Transcript of Classification

The Key to Finding
Order in Diversity.

Ch. 18
Development of Kingdoms
Evolutionary Classifcation
Darwin’s theory of evolution changed how scientists looked at classification. Traditional Linnean classification did not take into account evolutionary trends.

Today scientists use cladograms to show the evolutionary relationships among different organisms.
How do we classify?
Linnaeus's System
Linnaeus's 7 Taxonomic Categories
Kingdoms are the largest divisions
Classifying things into groups helps us to see relationships and understand the world around us.
Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)
Why do we need to
It is one way that humans simplify life in a complex world.
There are records of human attempts to classify organisms as far back as we can trace records:
There is no perfect system, but today we use the system developed by Linnaeus.
Today we use Carl Woese's (1977) 6 Kingdom division that was the first to use evolution and molecular genetics to separate them.

The 6 Kingdoms are: Plants, Animals, Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Protista, and Fungi.
Linnaeus developed a two word naming system for organisms called binomial nomenclature.
The scientific name of an organism is usually based on Latin or Greek and consists of two names Ex: Homo sapien; Ursus arctos
The more taxonomic categories a species has in common, the more closely related. We currently use 8 categories with the addition of domain in the 1990s.
Scientists often use dichotomous keys to classify organisms.
A dichotomous key is a forced choice system that gives you two choices as you move through a description of the characteristics of the organism
Ancient chinese organized into groups such as the 'fabulous ones', or 'ones that resemble flies from a distance'.
Aristotle was the first to classify according to structural similarities. He had 2 groups: animals and plants.
Today we use evolutionary relationships to classify organisms.
a swedish botanist who was extraordinarily good at collecting, naming, and classifying organisms, especially?
Published his classification in a book called Systema Naturae.
In 1990, Woese also developed Domain Classification, which is based on molecular biology. They are Bacteria, Archae, and Eukarya.
The first name is the genus and is always capitalized and the second name is the species. The scientific name of an organism is typically italicized.
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