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The Cellular Effect of Smog on the respiratory system

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by

Weston Hawkins

on 29 August 2014

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Transcript of The Cellular Effect of Smog on the respiratory system

Oxygenated blood travels through the pulmonary vein

Oxygen binds with hemoglobin (4 Fe atoms/RBC)

1 Fe atom = 2 O atoms
The Cellular Effect of Smog on the respiratory system
Effects on Respiratory Tract
In Summary...
Ozone reacts with proteins and lipids
Creates free radicals --> oxidative stress
leakage and inflammation
Antioxidants in the fluid can help combat this damage
Photochemical Smog Formation

O3 = OZONE
by: Karen Lu, Weston Hawkins, & Phil Elias
Inspiration (Ventilation)
Moving of air into the lungs

Inhalation
- diaphragm lowers/contracts

Filtered through cilium in bronchus
External Respiration (Pulmonary Diffusion)
Exchange of gases in lungs

Gas exchange takes place in the alveoli

Oxygen crosses basement membrane
Gas Transport by Blood
Cellular Respiration
Once the oxygen reaches its area, it is released into the other system.

Energy is released and transported back to the lungs through aterioles.
Expiration (Exhalation)
The removal of carbon dioxide from the body

CO2 returns through pulmonary arteriole and back into the lungs

Should be effortless, but with asthma, bronchitis, or pneumonia, it's not
The Five Steps of Respiration
Ozone is Reactive in Airways
The Sun Breaks Bonds
NO2 +Sunlight→ NO+O*
Reactive Oxygen Atom
O*+O2
Ozone reacts with NO in Air
Ozone formation Without Volatile organic compoundS (vocs)
O3 + NO O2 + NO2
Photochemical Smog Formation
with VOCs
NO2 +Sunlight→ NO+O*
O* + 02
VOCs + NO VOCs* +NO2
03 = OZONE
The presence of VOCs causes a build up of ozone in the lower atmosphere
The addition of particulate matter with ozone creates the hazy-gray fog we know as smog
Ozone = "membrane killer" - Dr. Bernd
Particulate matter = physical toxicant, also similar to ozone
SMOG
Particulate Matter
Inspiration
- Breathing

External Respiration
- Diffusion

Transport
- Leaving Lungs

Cellular Respiration
- body cells

Expiration
- Exhaling
PM2.5
PM10
http://www.epa.gov/apti/ozonehealth/population.html
http://www.epa.gov/apti/ozonehealth/population.html
Ozone Induces Bronchial Reflex
Particulate Matter and Cell Damage
Induce macrophages, which in turn cause the production of cytokines

Causes local and systemic inflammation that contribute to cardio-pulmonary disease
Bronchial Reflex to Ozone
Cough
Irritant receptors activated
Increase airway resistance
C-fibers stimulated
Activate mucous glands
Smooth muscle contraction
http://www.epa.gov/airquality/particulatematter/basic.html
http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs-wm/11765.pdf
Particulate Matter Entering Lung Cells
Activate EGFR/MAPK pathway
Particulate Matter of different compositions able to activate this receptor
Can lead to lung cell malfunction/death
www.intechopen.com/source/html/11765/media/image3.jpg
In Conclusion
Components of Smog = ozone, particulate matter, NOx, VOCs
Ozone: good up high, bad nearby
Lungs constantly diffuse, recharge, and release gases throughout the body
Ozone and particulate matter both cause inflammatory responses that contribute to respiratory and cardio-pulmonary disease
http://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/945/flashcards/98945/png/picture51318352006595.pn
http://www.pennmedicine.org/encyclopedia/ency_images/encymulti/images/en/19346.jp
http://www.acrd.bc.ca/cms_print.asp?wpIDPrint=314
http://www.epa.gov/apti/ozonehealth/population.html
Full transcript