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Unit 1: Government, Colonies, & Revolution

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Laura Case

on 30 May 2016

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Transcript of Unit 1: Government, Colonies, & Revolution

2. VA House of Burgesses
Triangle Trade
*Transition to Constitutional Monarchy*
(ex. parents, school)
(ex. peer pressure)
Expands king's advisory group
CIVICS & ECONOMICS
Civics
Personal Financial Literacy
Economics
What is
?
the study of citizenship and government
This is what we're going to talk about today!
GOVERNMENT?
What comes to
mind when you think of
Government:
ruling authority with power to make and enforce laws
Brainstorm:
What does government do?
Provides security
Provides services
Provides order
Provides public policy*
*goals for the community
Types of Government
Let's Review!
1. Democracy
Direct Democracy
Representative Democracy
2. Monarchy
Absolute Monarchy
Constitutional Monarchy
3. Theocracy
4. Federalism

5. Dictatorship
6. Totalitarianism
7. Aristocracy
8. Oligarchy
9. Anarchy
10. Confederacy
What kind of government do we have?
Representative Democracy
How did we get to this point?
*Absolute Monarchy in England for centuries*
1215 - Magna Carta
Major attempt to limit the king's power
called "Parliament"
Side note:
Two types of legislatures:
Unicameral - one house
Bicameral - two houses
English Bill of Rights, 1689
Written by Parliament, signed by William & Mary
1st time a monarch willingly gives up power
Known as Glorious Revolution
Common Law
Unwritten law in which punishment is based on precedent (previous decisions)
Government
Warm Up
Using a phone/device, label each colony. Then color code the colonies by region.
American Colonies
Regions
New England Colonies
Middle Colonies
Southern Colonies
Cold climate
Seasonal climate
Warm climate
Trading, commercial economy
Mixed economy
Agricultural economy
Generally, came for religious freedom
Generally, came for $$$
3 Regions
Why would the south be conducive to an agricultural economy?
What are cash crops & why did they get that name?
Connection: Why did people settle in the south?
Why would New England be conducive to a commercial (trading) economy?
GB
US
While colonists are coming to America, what's happening in Europe?
Enlightenment
Social Change
Conflict & Revolution
All documents, newspapers, cards taxed
Direct tax on colonies only
Colonists boycott
Tax on paper, glass, paint, & tea
Paid for British officials in colonies
"No taxation without representation"
British troops shoot & kill 5 during a street mob
Repeals Townshend Acts but keeps tax on tea which helps East India Company (monopoly)
Officials refuse to return tea to Britain, so a group of colonists dump 3 ships full of tea into the Boston harbor
To punish Tea Party group, Britian closes the Boston port & puts it under military rule
It also takes away self-govt in Massachusetts
Representatives from all colonies (except GA) meet in Philadelphia
Send Declaration of Rights & Grievances to King George III saying that colonies have the right to run their own affairs & they support the protests in Boston
Does not declare independence!
"Shot heard around the world"
Beginning of the war
Meets after Lexington & Concord
Eventually signs the DOI
Becomes the group that governs during the war
Letter from the colonists to the king in which they "break up" with England
Written by Thomas Jefferson
France & Britain fight for control of colonies & trade routes
Britain wins but its expensive
French & Indians vs. Britian & Colonists
Law that required all colonial ships to stop in British harbors first

Problem: Colonists ignore it because of profitable trade with other countries
No settlement allowed pass this line (to ease conflict with Native Americans)
Tax on sugar (textiles, wine, coffee, & indigo)
1st tax to raise money & not to regulate trade
Troops stay in homes & colonists pay for them
Colonists do not want them there
*Sons of Liberty led by Samuel Adams*
John Dickinson led group that wanted to reconcile & negotiate with the king
Pamphlet to colonists that supported independence from Britain
Bacon leads group of farmers against government b/c it did not support them against the Native Americans
**Salutary Neglect**
Bracket Challenge
Directions: Describe each event & decide which event was the biggest cause of the Revolutionary War.
During the 2nd Continental Congress, John Hancock & Benjamin Franklin exchanged the following words:
Hancock: We must be unanimous; we must all hang together.
Franklin: Yes, we must indeed all hang together, or most assuredly we shall all hang separately.
What do you think Ben Franklin meant by that? Why? Do you think he was right? Explain. Write at least 3 sentences!
Warm Up part 1
Foundations of Democracy
Colonial Complaints Against the British Monarchy
Reaction seen in the new government established by Articles of Confederation
Shays' Rebellion
Daniel Shay, a veteran farmer leads rebellion against government
Reveals weaknesses of the AoC
Unit 1:
Government, Colonies, & Revolution

National gov't = too weak
No single executive leader
Can't enforce the law
No national courts
No national taxes
Can't regulate trade
Too hard to fix AoC
13/13 states to change law
9/13 to add law
What's the difference?
Power:
ability to influence behavior of others
Authority:
right to give orders, make decisions, enforce obedience, etc.
Is it possible to have power but not authority or vice versa?
Can you think of other examples?
eventually becomes a legislature (grp. that makes laws)
Examples of rights in EBoR:
No cruel & unusual punishment
Trial by jury
Many Puritans
Came for different reasons
Very diverse
Mostly Anglican
salons
thinking
ideas
discussion
debate
rights
**Mercantilism**
**Result: Other colonies rally together
Warm Up part 2
Identify key parts of the above political cartoon. What do you think the artist is trying to say?
Warm Up, part 1
What benefits & criticisms can you think of for the following types of government?
- Monarchy
- Theocracy
- Dictatorship

Look at the poster on the left. What do you think the creator is trying to say about democracy? Do you agree? Why or why not?
Thomas Jefferson once said,
Warm Up, part 2
"...Wherever the people are well informed they can be trusted with their own government."
Considering we have a democracy in the US, do you think that US voters are well-informed and able to be trusted with our government? Why or why not?
Warm Up
**When you're finished, study! Quiz today!**
Warm Up, part 2
Create a triple venn diagram comparing the New England, Middle, & Southern colonies.
New England
Middle
South
Warm Up
1. When someone does something to make you mad, what might you do? What if they do it again? What if they continue to do it?
2. What causes groups of people to come together? Give 3 examples.
3. What is limited government?
4. What did the Magna Carta do? English Bill of Rights?
5. About how much sugar do you consume each day?
6. What is mercantilism?
7. What is salutary neglect?
8. What is a boycott? Give a modern day example.
9. What is a repeal?
10. What country established colonies NW of the English colonies?
**When you're finished, study! Quiz today!**
Assignment
Choose 8 of the conflicts that led to the American Revolution that you think are most significant. Create a cartoon strip depicting each event that you've chosen.
Warm Up
1. What is something your parent(s) do/did that you want to mimic when you become a parent?

2. What is something your parent(s) do/did that you do NOT want to do when you become a parent?

3. What complaints did the colonists have against the King and his government?

4. Describe the ideas of Locke, Rousseau, Hobbes, and Montesquieu.

5. Define social contract, consent of the governed, separation of powers, and natural rights.
one extreme
to the other
1. What is the difference between power & authority?
2. Who has power/authority in a democracy? Monarchy? Theocracy?
3. What is a criticism of democracy? Monarchy? Theocracy?
4. Describe common law.
5. Name 2 things that limited the English monarch.
6. What is self-governance? How did we see it in the colonies?
7. Describe the climate/economy/origin/religion of the 3 colonial regions. (Create a chart if needed)
"The social compact sets up among the citizens an equality of such a kind, that they all bind themselves to observe the same conditions and should therefore all enjoy the same rights."
Who Said It?
Rousseau
"Every man having been born free and master of himself, no one else may under any pretext whatever subject him without his consent."
Rousseau
"No man has any natural authority over his fellow man."
Rousseau
"(1) there must be guarantees that people will not harm one another, and (2) people must be able to rely on one another to keep their agreements. Only a government can provide for (1) and (2).  Therefore, we need a government.  In establishing a government, people give up some of their personal freedom (the freedom of anarchy, such as it is) and give the government the authority to enforce laws and agreements."
Rousseau
"When the legislative and executive powers are united in the same person, or in the same body of magistrates, there can be no liberty; because apprehensions may arise, lest the same monarch or senate should enact tyrannical laws, to execute them in a tyrannical manner."
Montesquieu
"There would be an end of every thing were the same man, or the same body, whether of the nobles or of the people to exercise those three powers that of enacting laws, that of executing the public resolutions, and that of judging the crimes or differences of individuals."
Montesquieu
"But though men when they enter into society, give up the equality, liberty and executive power they had in the state of nature, into the hands of the society, to be so far disposed of by the legislature, as the good of the society shall require; yet it being only with an intention to everyone the better to preserve himself his liberty and property."
Locke
"All mankind... being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty or possessions."
Locke
"Every man has a property in his own person. This nobody has a right to, but himself."
Locke
Warm Up, part 1
Describe the relationship between each of the following pairs.
1. Mercantilism & Navigation Acts
2. French & Indian War & Proclamation Line of 1763
3. Tea Act & Boston Tea Party
4. Lexington & Concord & 2nd Continental Congress
5. Olive Branch Petition & Declaration of Independence
6. Puritans & Pilgrims
7. Direct Democracy & Representative Democracy
8. Parliament & Congress
9. Power & Authority
10. Declaration of Independence & Articles of Confederation
Warm Up, part 2
1. What event revealed the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?

2. What were the weaknesses of the AoC?

3. What was one success of the AoC?
"...For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury..."
Ask yourself...
What document? Who wrote/created it? What is it about?
How can I use it to answer the question?

*Be sure to answer the question!!*
How does the following excerpt demonstrate the colonists' opinion on the English monarch's power & authority?
Draw the triangular trade and describe how it was influenced by mercantilism.
Let's Review...
Warm Up
1. What is Mrs. Morgan's website?
2. How many units are there?
3. What % of your grade are tests worth?
4. Each day, what should you be doing when the bell rings?
5. What will happen if you're using a cell phone unnecessarily?
6. If you miss a test, how long do you have to make it up?
7. When can you use the bathroom?
8. What happens if you cheat?
9. When is tutoring?
READ YOUR SYLLABUS, THEN ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ON YOUR WARM UP PAPER:
Basically...
the National Gov't was too
strong
Basically...
the National Gov't was too
weak
(& state gov'ts too strong)
It is not wisdom but authority that makes a law.
Hobbes
Warm Up
1. How did mercantilism impact commerce?
2. How did the founding fathers feel about self-governance?
3. Explain how the British abused power and authority.
4. What is the philosophy of Locke? Rousseau? Montesquieu? Hobbes?
5. List the weaknesses of the AoC.

** Study your notes! Test today! If you have a question about your review sheet, be prepared to ask after we go over the warm up.
before F&I War... just not enforced until after
"Why stand we here idle? What is it that gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!"
Patrick Henry, 1775
Main points:
They had every right & merit to declare independence b/c...
An island should not rule a continent
America made up of ppl from all over Europe
As a "mother country" Britian was acting terribly - no mother would harm her children that way
Britain would drag America into unneccessary European wars
Way too much distance
Americans not represented in Parliament
Colonies were being taken advantage of for Britain's benefit
Origin of US Government
2nd settlement:
Plymouth, MA (1620)
Declaration of Independence (1776)
Period of Salutary Neglect
13 colonies established
(king ignores colonists, which allows them to self-govern & run their own economies)
French & Indian War (1754-1763)
Georgia (1732)
1st settlement:
Jamestown, VA (1607)
Why Did the Colonists Come?
What Ideas Did the Colonists Bring?
Religious freedom
(Puritans, Quakers, Catholics)
Charter companies came to make $
Indentured servants
Slaves
Prisoners/debtors in GA
person under contract for fix period of time, usually worked in exchange for travel to new world
Looks like a pilgrim...
What's the difference?

Pilgrims were a group of Puritans that wanted to
separate
from the church

Puritans wanted to
purify/fix
the church
permission from the gov't
James Oglethorpe
Mercantilism
Religious freedom
Common Law
Self-government
1. Export (sell) more than you import (buy)
2. Colonies produce raw materials for Mother Country
3. Wealth is measured in gold
America
Africa
Europe
refined goods
raw materials
slaves
"Middle Passage"
*Kinda sorta*
Laws based on precedent (past decisions made by judges)
= ability to govern yourself
2 examples in the colonies:
1. Mayflower Compact
agreement among Pilgrims/Puritans to follow whatever government they created when they arrived in the colonies
(ex. of a SOCIAL CONTRACT & DIRECT DEMOCRACY)
1st elected representative assembly in the colonies
(ex. of a REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY)
Principles of Government
Separation of Powers
Equality & Rule of Law
Social Contract &
"Consent of the Governed"
Natural / Unalienable Rights
Limited Government
Self Government
Power should be split into 3 branches to keep one group/person from being too powerful
Example:
Legislative Branch - makes laws
Executive Branch - enforces laws
Judicial Branch - interprets laws
Equality - everyone is born the same

Rule of Law - everyone must follow the law
There is an agreement between the government & the people:
Rights you are born with
The government doesn't have absolute power and is limited by factors like the people, Constitutions, checks & balances, etc.
The ability to govern yourself
Examples:
Virginia House of Burgesses
Mayflower Compact
Philosophers
Locke:
Montesquieu:
Rousseau:
Hobbes:
wrote about natural rights
wrote about separation of powers
wrote about the social contract
also wrote about the social contract
What's the difference?
Hobbes believe that once the people give permission to be governed, the gov't has ABSOLUTE power.
Rousseau believed that if the gov't failed to uphold it's side of the contract, the people should abolish it & create a new gov't
The gov't agrees to protect the people & provide order
The people give their "consent to be governed" & promise to abide by the rules
John Locke's Examples:
life, liberty, & property

Thomas Jefferson's Examples:
life, liberty, & pursuit of happiness
the king
Bill of Rights
legislature
make
Glorious
precedent
judges
Natural Rights
life
liberty
property
Social Contract
powers
legislative
executive
judicial
Tyrant King
Taxation w/o representation in legislature
Unfair trials
Couldn't trade with other countries
Couldn't move past the Proclamation Line
Quartering troops
No executive leader
No national taxes
Each state represented in Congress
No national courts
No regulation of trade
NW Ordinance - encourages settlement in the NW
No national military
Only real success!
Warm Up

1. What is Mrs. Bridgers' website?
2. How many units are there?
3. What % of your grade are tests worth?
4. Each day, what should you be doing when the bell rings?
5. What will happen if you're using a cell phone unnecessarily?
6. If you miss a test, how long do you have to make it up?
7. When can you use the bathroom?
8. What happens if you cheat?
9. When is tutoring?

READ YOUR SYLLABUS, THEN ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ON YOUR WARM UP PAPER:
Full transcript