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Claims of Fact, Value, and Policy

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Chelsey Patterson

on 9 April 2013

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Transcript of Claims of Fact, Value, and Policy

Chelsey Patterson
Rebecca Wilson
Bryan Luther
Javon May Claims of Fact, Value, and Policy Claim of Fact Claim of Value Claim of Policy Activity Time! Inference
A statement about the unknown on the basis of the known
Difference between fact and inference is inference is an interpretation, or an opinion reached after informed evaluation of evidence Claim of Fact Claim of Fact Facts are non negotiable
Atlas
Maps
Reference books
Telephone directories
Data from scientific sources Claim of Fact Not all claims are neatly stated.
There are exceptions to generalizations
Qualify claims with:
Generally
Usually
Probably
As a rule Definition:
Asserts that a condition has existed, exists, or will exist
Based on facts or data that the audience will accept as being objectively verifiable
Other ways to support:
Statistics
Examples
Testimonies Claim of Fact Claim of Fact Example:
"Excessive television viewing has caused the steady decline in the reading ability of children and teenagers."

This is an inference.
The reading ability has declined
The average child views television for six or more hours a day

The cause and effect relation noted between the facts is an inference from the investigator. Claim of Fact No inference can ever do more than suggest probabilities
Almost all claims in science are based on inferences, interpretations of data
Inferences are important and helpful in an argument; however, they are not facts. Claim of Value Definition:
Attempt to prove that some things are more or less desirable than others
Express approval or disapproval or taste and morality
Make a judgment Claim of Value Attempt to prove some action, belief, or condition is right or wrong, good or bad.
Simple expressions of taste or likes and dislikes
Latin proverb "De gustibus non est disputandum" means we cannot dispute taste Claim of Value Can be attacked or defended on basis of standards that measure worth of an action, belief, or object
Our likes and dislikes should be supported by reference
Analysis will be the same of all areas of human experience Claim of Value Two general areas in which people most often disagree about matters of value:
Aesthetics
Morality Claim of Policy Definition:
Asserts that specific plans or courses of action should be instituted as solutions to problems
Almost always "should" or "ought to" or "must" is expressed or implied in the claim Claim of Value Aesthetics
study of beauty and the fine arts
Controversies over works of art rage fiercely among experts and laypeople alike
The Rogerian approach to conflict resolution can be useful in resolving disagreements over the standards of judging Claim of Value Morality
value claims about morality express judgments about the rightness or wrongness of conduct or belief
disagreements are as wide and deep as in the arts, and more significant
Although a writer and their reader may share many values, there are still many others they may disagree on Claim of Value In formulating value claims, you should be prepared to ask and answer questions about the way in which your value claims and those of others have been arrived at
Although you cannot make someone believe what you believe, you can give good reasons to express your opinion Claim of Policy In defending a claim of policy, have to do a few steps:
Make a factual claim
Refer to values that support claim
Then introduce policy to show why your solution will solve the problem
If using Rogerian approach, you will point out the pros and cons of the solution Claim of Policy A major mistake made is ignoring the opinions of others
You can only support your own idea if you can acknowledge the other person's perspective Claim of Policy Keep audience in mind
Must consider what the audience can do about the situation
Hope to accomplish to get the readers to consider the situation or problem from your perspective
Continue to think about "What do I want my readers to do or think?"
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