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Motion Picture Camera
Transcript of Motion Picture Camera
A New Way to Create
and Capture History In 1832 Joseph Plateau introduced the
Phenakistoscope. Pictures on one disc viewed through slots on the other appeared to move when the two were spun and viewed through a mirror. In 1834 the Zoetrope was introduced by William George Horner. The Zoetrope used the same principle as Plateau's, but instead of discs the pictures and slots are combined in a rotating drum. Leland Stanford's Horse In 1872 Leland Stanford, the governor of California at that time, insisted that a horse in full stride takes off four feet off the ground. Stanford hired Edweard Muybridge a San Francisco photographer to prove his point and settle a 25,000 dollar bet. After many unsuccessful experiments, Muybridge lined several cameras along a racetrack. When the horse traveled down the track it triggered carefully placed trip wire. The results of the experiment proved that horses could indeed fly. This project, which illustrated motion through a series of still images viewed together, was a antecedent of motion picture technology. Thesis The new medium created by the motion picture camera has greatly influenced modern culture by offering a new way to capture the human experience. Thomas Edison In East Orange New Jersey Thomas Edison was working on perfecting the phonograph.
Edison assigned William Dickson to developing a machine that could visually accompany his phonograph. For two years not much resulted, because they could not find the proper material to keep the pictures on. Luckily, in 1888 George Eastman devised the flexible film based cover for capturing photographs in motion. He called it celluloid film. This is exactly what Edison and Dickson were looking for. George Eastman Kinetoscope and Kinetograph The new celluloid film allowed Edison and Dickson to finally invent the Kinetoscope: a continuous loop of film that passes over a series of rollers in front of a lens projecting an image that only one person could see. A customer could drop a penny in the machine, turn the crank, look through the viewfinder and enjoy a short movie. To accompany the kinetoscope Dickson and Edison also developed the kinetograph. Which would capture images in motion. It was very bulky, and was also fed the same celluloid film. The Lumiere Brothers The Kinetoscope and Kinetograph, although revolutionary, were definitely flawed. The Lumiere family was well known for their business of photographic equipment. Which made the Lumiere brothers the perfect people to invent the first practical motion picture camera. The brothers identified two main problems with Edison's device. First, it's bulk, the kinetograph was a colossal piece of machinery and its weight and size resigned it to the studio. Second, the nature of the kinetoscope, only one person could view the projected image at a time. Joseph Plateau William George Horner In 1515 Leonardo Da Vinci presented a drawing of a type of image projector called The Magic Lantern which was later developed in the 17th century. The First Movie Star: Occident the Horse Painting: "Vitruvian Man" The Cinematographe By early in 1895, the brothers had
invented their own device by
combining camera with printer
and projector. They called it the
Cinematographe. It was much
smaller than Edison's Kinetograph.
It was lightweight (around 11 pounds),
and was hand cranked. The Lumieres
used a film speed of 16 frames per second,
which was much slower than Edison's
48 fps. This meant that less film was used,
and the clatter and grinding associated
with Edison's device was reduced. A Quote from Auguste Lumiere "My invention, (the motion picture camera), can be exploited... as a scientific curiosity, but apart from that it has no commercial value whatsoever." Economic Evidence The data shows that the industry has grown from a yearly revenue of 73 billion in 2005 to a massive 82 billion in 2010. This quantitative data goes to show that even today the motion picture camera helps our economy tremendously. The First Film Ever Shown The first movie ever shown on March 22, 1896. Louis Lumiere's film "Arrival of the Train," shows, in only fifty seconds, an everyday occurrence, a train pulls into a train station, and the passengers go back and forth on the platform. The audience was terrified of the train coming straight towards them. Noel Burch, who was there for the first screening, notes that the spectators "jumped from their chairs in shock." Bibliography Collins, Theresa M., Lisa Gitelman, and Gregory Jankunis. 2002. Thomas Edison and modern America: a brief history with documents. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.
Couvares, Francis. Movie Censorship And American Culture. Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Pr, 2006.
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Movie Attendance 1946 was believed to be the all-time biggest movie year in America. More than 80 million people, which was 57% of Americans at that time, went to the theaters every week. This was before TV altered that number. Hollywood Goes to War The propaganda of motion pictures During the early part of the 1940's, Hollywood made a number of World War II movies that were not made only to entertain, but also to heighten the spirit of patriotism in the American people. These films would influence the entry of the United States into the war and support our military effort when finally involved. "Foreign Correspondent" 1940 - Alfred Hitchcock War was raging in Great Britain and throughout Europe. The United States had still not joined the war. Director Alfred Hitchcock released "Foreign Correspondent" in 1940 allowing Americans an insightful look into the war. "The Great Dictator" 1940 - Charlie Chaplin Charlie Chaplin chose to be more direct. He gave an insightful spoof on fascism and the Nazi party. Individuals were easily identified behind their screen names as the dictatorial, power hungry, tyrants that they were. "Flying Tigers" 1942 - Republic Pictures "Wake Island" After the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor, America entered into the war. "Flying Tigers" showcased American pilots fighting for China against Japanese invaders just before the invasion of Pearl Harbor. The film starred John Wayne, who throughout his career would prove to be one of the most patriotic celebrities of all time. "Wake Island" is a very good example of how Hollywood would twist the truth to improve moral and patriotism. This movie gave audiences the impression that the island's defenders fought to the last man, when in truth, the overwhelming odds and repeated assaults by Japanese troops led to the surrender of the island. "Wake Island" served its primary purpose of regarding war time propaganda and fueled feelings of patriotism for the American public. $25,000 with modern inflation is approximately $471,698.11. The Star Era Early on, actors were not known by name, but in 1910, the "star system" was born starting with the promotion of Vitagraph Co. actress Florence Lawrence, first known as "The Vitagraph Girl." Other companies, noting that this approach improved business, responded by attaching names to popular faces and "fan magazines" quickly followed, providing plenty of free publicity. Censorship Since the beginning of the "star era" many argue that movie stars contribute to popular culture by showing society how to act, what to say, and how to look. In 1966, the Production Code was replaced by the Motion Picture Code and Rating Program. The program initially assigned each film one of four ratings: G (general audiences, without restrictions), M (mature audiences, parental guidance advised), R (restricted audiences, no one younger than 18 admitted without a parent or guardian), and X (no one younger than 18 admitted). The age limit may be adjusted by individual state rulings. M was eventually replaced by PG (parental guidance suggested), PG-13, was introduced for films that might contain material inappropriate for pre-teenagers, and NC-17 replaced X, which had become associated with pornographic films. thegreatstars.com Censorship During the 1920s, pressure to censor the movies grew. In 1922 twenty-two state legislatures considered bills to impose state and local censorship. Criticism of the industry grew, and by 1932, about 40 religious and educational groups had called for censorship. The Catholic church was unified in its demand that the industry needed recognize its moral responsibilities to the public. The threat of movie boycotts by the Catholic Legion of Decency led the industry's trade association in 1934 to create the Production Code Administration Office. Continued Challenging Censorship In 1915 The Mutual Film Corporation began a full-bore attack on censorship throwing every possible argument against the censors of Ohio, Pennsylvania, and several other states. Mutual stated that movie censorship violated the company’s right to due process of law, and that it violated the free speech protections of the First and Fourteenth Amendments. Mutual went on to argue that movies should be considered part of the press and should then be freed from prior restraint.
The Supreme Court justices unanimously rejected Mutual’s claims and ignored its free speech constitutional argument entirely. The unanimous Court found that movies were not part of the press or part of any legitimate art, but that they were only business. pictureshowman.com 16 frames per second is the speed still used today for motion pictures. Pop Culture American films are not only viewed in America, but are viewed by massive audiences around the world. American film firms dominate a majority of the market share in the global film industry. Which means that American movie stars are seen globally. Some would argue that this creates cultural imperialism. For decades cultural products like movies have stepped across border lines to developing and non-developing countries to overpower the local culture. Receiving this new culture can either be a curse or a gift. It might destroy local cultural identity, but on the other hand the culture is receiving universal values like freedom of expression, democracy, human rights, and equality. vizfact.com precinemahistory.net ssplprints.com intelligentheritage.com labspace.open.ac.uk alloveralbany.com biography.com digitaljournalist.org nndb.com wired.com wordpress.com completefrance.com transenprovence.org transenprovence.org youtube.com commerce.gov archives.com doctormacro.com mrmovietimes.com listal.com tower.com movieposter.com Maisuwong, Wanwarang. The Promotion of American Culture Through Hollywood Movies to the World Audience: A Threat to National Identity and Sovereignty. International Conference on International Relations and Development, 2012.
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