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Transcript of GERD
branches out into two directions: The Esophagus muscular tube connecting pharynx to stomach The Lower Esophageal Sphincter -closes to contain stomach contents (food and acid) Stomach has strong muscular walls -the squamous epithelium is sensitive and can be damaged by acid reflux easily and cause heartburn -lining is called columnar mucosa
-made up of tall cells called columnar epithelium
-secrets mucus that protects columnar mucosa secretes acid and powerful enzymes that help break down food -digests carbohydrates, fats, proteins etc.
-kills harmful bacteria food that leaves stomach is called chyme Small Intestine uses peristalsis to move food around Large Intestine ends at the rectum, which stores food waste Pancreas secrets enzymes Liver makes/secrets bile (bile eliminates waste from blood and digests fat) Gall Bladder stores + contracts bile - a muscular valve found between the stomach and esophagus
-opens to let food in
-activated when a you swallow
-the LES of a GERD patient opens/closes frequently What Not To Eat Some foods... relax the LES irritate the esophagus Chocolate Caffeinated drinks High-fat foods Alcohol Carbonated beverages alcohol citrus fruits + juices coffee tomato based food mint flavourings spicy food Nicotine Symptoms frequent heartburn nausea acid regurgitation trouble swallowing bad breath increase of saliva hoarseness, coughing -sometimes it feels like a heart attack or angina -your body's natural antacid -when acid reflux reaches trachea in this case, the food is going down the esophagus to the stomach and during reflux, acid from the stomach goes up the esophagus think of it backwards.... if the acid reaches high enough, it can go down the trachea to the larnyx/voicebox causing other complications flat cells called squamous epithelium make up the esophageal lining (squamous mucosa) -in a healthy digestive system, if stomach contents slide up the esophagus, muscles would contract and push it back up -helps soften food -lubricates the throat -digests carbohydrates uses contractions (preistalsis) to send food down to stomach Some examples are... Some examples are... With a relaxed LES, it will stop opening and closing when it is supposed to, causing it to be more likely for acid to back up. Some foods would irritate the esophagus because of the damage that the stomach acids caused, making it more vulnerable to certain foods than a healthy esophagus. to GERD -irritates and reddens esophageal lining
-relaxes LES muscles -causes stomach to create more acid obesity -causes added pressure on the stomach area, making it harder for the LES to function pregnancy -pressure on the stomach area
-high hormone levels hiatal hernia -stomach takes to long to empty -when acid stays in stomach for too long, it backs up into esophagus gastroparesis -when upper portion of stomach moves upward to chest men, women, infants, children overweight or pregnant people are more likely (because of the added pressure on their stomachs GERD in Children and Infants It can cause... repeated vomiting
respiratory problems (sore throat)
ear infection Infants usually grow out of GERD by the time they are 1 year old. Preventing Heartburn and GERD wearing loose clothing -less pressure on LES eating small meals at a time by not lying down for at least three hours after eating by not taking birth control pills, drugs for osteoporosis elevating upper portion of body while sleeping eat dinner earlier by not drinking alcohol loosing weight quitting smoking chewing gum after meals -having a full stomach relaxes LES -because of gravity, acid would not slip up the esophagus as easily -increases production of saliva -with exercises that doesn't include bending down so that your stomach doesn't push up against your LES -saliva neutralizes acid sleeping on your right side causes acid to easily flow down to your esophagus because of gravity... sleeping on your left side prevents acid from flowing into your esophagus Because of the acid reflux that occurs when you have GERD... People experience HEARTBURN Not everyone with heartburn and reflux has GERD Heartburn is the burning sensation that occurs in the esophagus once acid enters it. The lining of the esophagus is sensitive causing the pain of heartburn. But, if you have it for more than twice a week, you should get evaluated for GERD. An organ system that breaks down food while absorbing nutrients used by the body for energy. GERD occurs in the the esophagus the trachea Alka Seltzer H2 blockers they block histamine receptors that signal your stomach to produce acid Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) reduces production of stomach acids
appears to repair the damage of the esophageal lining Tums
If drugs don't work, surgery can be taken: Fundoplication the top of the stomach is folded around the base of the esophagus and stitched there
this tightens the area around LES which helps to keep it closed Complications Having GERD can lead to other disorders... ulcers and bleeding in the esophagus (esophageal erosion) -serious complication esophagitis, esophageal stricture (narrowing of tube), damages muscles asthma throat and laryngeal inflammation infection of the lungs can cause a change in the esophageal lining (Barrett's Esophagus) can lead to cancer esophageal scarring An injured esophageal lining because of the exposure of stomach acids... Produce new cells that form scar tissues... Which thicken the esophageal lining causing esophageal stricture... and it makes pushing food down the esophagus to the stomach difficult. By: Neha Patel coiled in abdomen
continues breaking down food using bile and enzymes
lined with villi which has blood vessels that absorb nutrients
also uses peristalsis
also known as the colon
blood vessels absorb most of the water + remaining minerals
-pain starts at middle of chest, radiates to neck + shoulder The End.