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STEPHEN HAWKING

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Dilini Kekulawala

on 17 March 2014

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Transcript of STEPHEN HAWKING

Stephen William Hawking is born to Frank and Isobel Hawking in Oxford, England.
THE LIFE OF STEPHEN HAWKING
January 8, 1942
LEGEND
PERSONAL IMPORTANCE

SCIENTIFIC IMPORTANCE IN WHICH HE PARTICIPATED

UNRELATED SCIENTIFIC IMPORTANCE

UNRELATED HISTORICAL/ARTISTIC IMPORTANCE

Fun fact: Hawking was born exactly 300 years after the death of Galileo Galilei's death.
Stephen Hawking with his sister, Mary
1959
Stephen wins scholarship to Oxford University where he begins studying physics (because mathematics wasn't available at Oxford)
1958
Stephen graduates from St. Alban's School
Fun Fact: Until the age of 10, he attended St. Alban's High School for Girls
Fun Fact: he joined the Oxford rowing team to "relieve his immense boredom"
And despite his very relaxed studying habits, he graduated with a First Class BA Degree
May 8th, 1945
World War Two Comes to an end.
Because of the intense political climate of WWII and the German bombs, Frank Hawking moved his wife (pregnant with Stephen) from their London home to Oxford, in search of a safer home to raise their first child.
October 4, 1957
Soviets launch Sputnik; the first man-made object in orbit. The launch of Sputnik launches the space age.
As a child, Stephen spent many nights watching the stars with his mother in their backyard. He had a passion for the sky and stars from a very young age.
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
Present

Age 12 in St. Alban's
BY: DILINI KEKULAWALA
December 8th, 1980
Legendary English singer-songwriter John Lennon is assassinated in New York City
This signals the end of the 60s and 70s culturally.
April 26, 2007
Becomes the first quadriplegic to experience zero-gravity, aboard NASA's Vomit Comet.
His fascination with space extends to space exploration as well and one day, Stephen Hawking wants to visit space.
It was the first time he was free from his wheelchair in over 4o years.
"It was amazing.. I could go on and on - space here I come!"
1993
Internet becomes available to everybody after the government unleashes it.
This begins the third wave of human history.
The first wave was the Agrarian age, then the Industrial Age, and now the Informational Age.
Working with Jacob Bekenstein, Hawking discovers that black holes aren't completely black. They should
thermally create and emit sub-atomic particles
until they eventually
use up all their energy and evaporate.
"Hawking Radiation"
1974
The 'radius of no return'
Late 1960s
(1965-1970)
Penrose-Hawking Singularity Theorem
Confirmed that singularities could appear in blackholes, then applied this idea to show
Einstein's theory predicted a singularity at the Big Bang.
1962
Popular Theory in Cosmology
*
Dates
are colour-coded to correspond with legend
= Universes went through a rapid inflation period after the Big Bang
Hawking showed how
quantum fluctuations during the inflation might lead to the spread of galaxies
in the universe. As in, what started as a tiny fluctuation grew into the big cosmic structure we see today.
Fun Fact:
Recent maps have picked up the faint afterglow of the big bang, that reveal the kind of variations that Hawking referred to
1971-1972
The "No Hair" Theorem
1962
Stephen Hawking is diagnosed with
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
also known as Lou Gherig's Disease, while in his first year of his Ph.D.
Stephen's world changed drastically:
"I suddenly realized that there were a lot of worthwhile things I could do... After all, if I were going to die anyway, it might as well do some good"
Doctors hoped his condition would stabilize, but instead, it progressed rapidly. He was given
two years left to live.
Time was ticking
April 5, 2012
Stephen Hawking guest stars on the Big Bang Theory
He has also made an appearance in many other shows, including:
The Simpsons
Star Trek
1965
Stephen Hawking marries Jane Wilde, after first meeting each other at a New Year's Party in 1963.
He later divorced his wife in 1990 after 26 years of marriage, leaving her to be with his nurse, Elaine Mason.
In 1995, he married Elaine and grew apart from his family.
He divorced his second wife in 2006 and reconciled with his family.
1988
Published the book
"A Brief History of Time"
One of the best-selling books of all times
25 million + copies have been sold
Translated into 40 different languages
IN MORE SIMPLE TERMS:
1985
During a visit to CERN in Geneva, Stephen contracted
pneumonia; a life threatening illness
with his condition.
He undergoes an
emergency tracheotomy
, which results in losing his remaining ability to speak.
He has since then spoken using a computer program called "Equalizer" that is operated using a muscle in his cheek.
July 20, 1969
Man Lands on the Moon.
1965
Penzias and Wilson discover cosmic microwave radiation.
= the thermal radiation left over from the Big Bang
Helped prove Hawking's adaptation to the Popular Theory in Cosmology
1996
Meteorite from Mars found in Antarctica in 1984, points to the possibility of life on Mars.
1976
Cosmic String Theory is Introduced by Thomas Kibble.
= the rapid cooling after the explosion of the universe caused stringlike flaws of concentrated mass-energy that could stretch the length of the universe
1977
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is introduced.
This is a huge breakthrough in imaging technology in the field of medicine; especially in diagnosis.
1950
Gertrude Elion and George Hitchings create mercaptopurine, the first truly effective leukemia drug.
This medicine greatly impacted the treatment of leukemia and helped many of those diagnosed, like the small boy that inspired Hawking to not give up hope after being diagnosed with ALS.
= blackholes can be described by only three quantities: their mass, angular momentum and their charge
Hawking mathematically demonstrated that the size and shape of a rotating black hole would only depend on its mass & rate of rotation; not on the nature of the body that collapsed to form it.
1983
The "No Boundary" Theory
= the universe, itself is finite but had no initial singularity to provide a boundary
The conventional theory
Hartle and Hawking's No Boundary Proposal
* He is currently 72 years old and still working away; before him, the oldest ALS patients made it 32 and 39 years of age

* Both a great scientist and a great humanitarian, all the while living with Lou Gherig's Disease (ALS)

* He is compared with the likes of Einstein and Newton (and has received many of the same awards and held many of the same positions as the former two)

* He is considered one of the most influential minds of our time and is an inspiration to both the disabled and able-bodied
...AND HE WAS SUPPOSED TO DIE OVER 40 YEARS AGO
Stephen Hawking meeting the Queen
May 18, 2006
They had three kids together: Tim, Robert & Lucy
(In the 1980s)
2009
He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Obama , the highest civilian honour in the U.S.
Awarded the Copley Medal (the highest honour for scientific achievement) by the Royal Society
2006
Full transcript