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The History of Chemistry
Transcript of The History of Chemistry
BEGINNING.... PREHISTORIC TIMES KING HAMMURABI (1700 BC) ordered that the names of the known metals of the time be listed, generally in correlation to heavenly bodies
DEMOCRITUS (465 BC) was the first to conceive of the idea of matter, and that all matter is made up of infinitely small units, which he named ATOMS
ARISTOTLE (430 BC), one of the great philosophers of is time, developed the theory that there are only 4 elements (fire, water, air and earth) and 4 properties (hot, cold, wet and dry) All matter was made up of one of these 4 elements, and and could be classified as having 2 of these properties ARISTOTLE'S IDEAS LED TO..... THE ERA OF ALCHEMY MOTIVES Wanted to turn cheaper metals (i.e. lead) into gold by manipulating its properties
Believed that a substance known as the PHILOSOPHER'S STONE would give the the ability to do so PRACTICING IN SECRET The practice of alchemy was outlawed by Pope John XXII for fear of an excess of gold in the wrong hands
It was also generally looked down upon by society as foolish
Alchemists had to practice in secret throughout Europe THE ELIXIR OF LIFE Alchemists also set out to create a chemical substance that would cure all diseases and make people live longer and healtier lives --> called it THE ELIXIR OF LIFE
In China, the attempt to mix chemicals to form suc a substance resulted in the world's first EXPLOSION! BUT THEN CAME BOYLE....
(A.K.A The Death of Alchemy) ROBERT BOYLE Wrote a book called "The Skeptical Chemist" which disproved Aristotle's ideas
Proposed that small particles (atoms) combined to form larger ones (molecules)
Determined that compounds were different from mixtures
Studied the properties of liquid and vapor pressure
Discovered the fundamental gas laws (1637-1691) NOW COMES MODERN SCIENCE 18th CENTURY CHEMISTS CHARLES COULOMB For two particles separated by a certain distance, the attraction between te two is directly proportional to their charges and inversely proportional to their distance JOHANN J. BEECHER discovered a substance called PLOGISTON. When a substance was burned, phlogiston was added from the air to the flame. In some cases, a product is produced (ex. calx of mercury + phlogiston--> mercury) Performed experiments wherin he heated the calx of mercury, collected the colorless gas and burned different substances in this colorless gas. Called the gas he discovered "dephlogisticated air" JOSEPH PRIESTLY ANTOINE LAVOISIER Disproved the Phlogiston Theory. He realized that the "dephlogisticated air" was actually oxygen! OKAY, NOW THE IMPORTANT STUFF... 19th CENTURY CHEMISTS ALESSANDRO VOLTA Made the first voltaic cell from alternating layers of zinc and copper (or silver and copper) separated by brine-soaked paper JOHN DALTON AMEDEO AVOGADRO MICHAEL FARADAY THOMAS GRAHAM LOUIS PASTEUR ALFRED NOBEL DMITRI MENDELEEV LUDWIG BOLTZMAN HENRY LE CHATLIER HENRI BECQUEREL ALMOST DONE.... THANKS FOR NOT FALLING ASLEEP YET..... MOST OF YOU..... 20th CENTURY CHEMISTS SIR J.J. THOMSON SVANTE ARRHENIUS WALTER NERNST ALFRED WERNER MARIE CURIE SIR ERNEST RUTHERFORD GILBERT LEWIS SIR ALEXANDER FLEMMING HENRY MOSELEY SIR JAMES CHADWICK HAROLD UREY GEORGE KISTIAKOWSKY WERNER HEISENBERG ENRICO FERMI WILLARD LIBBY Proposed the ATOMIC THEORY, which proved Democritus' theory that all matter was composed of atoms
Came up with laws of partial pressures of gases
Laid foundation for the law of multiple proportions, of constant composition and of conservation of mass Proposed the idea that equalvolumes of gases contain the same number of molecules
Every 22.41 Liters of gas contains 6.022 x 10(to the)23 molecules Developed the theories of mechanical energy and electrical energy
Also made advancements in the study of corrosion, batteries and electrolysis Developed the science of immunochemistry
Realized that disease was caused by infectious bacteria
developed the method of heat-sterilization of wine and milk in factories Developed the kinetic theory of gases
observations of viscosity and diffusive properties of liquids led to BOLTZMAN'S LAW Made important observations about the diffusion of solutions through membranes
Established the principles of colloid chemistry Invented dynamite, blasting gelatin and smokeless powder
Nobel prize awards are named after him Discovered radioactivity of elements
also discovered that electrons are deflected by magnetic fields and gamma radiation Le Chatlier's Laws describe te properties of equilibrium ractions
Also did work with cimbustion of gases Discovered the periodic properties of elements and came up with the first PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS OKAY. THAT'S IT.
:-D BUT WAIT! ONE MORE THING.....