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Argument

Introduction, Thesis, Warrants, Helpful Hints/Worksheets, Possible Graphic organizers, Appeals, Citations, Faulty Logic
by

Brittany O'Hara

on 15 March 2013

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Transcript of Argument

Setting the Tone: Your Introductory Paragraph Think of your introduction paragraph like a funnel.

1) First grab your readers' attention with a general statement about your topic.

2) Then give your reader a brief explanation (2-5 sentences) of what you will be explaining about your topic.

3) End your introduction with a strong statement/claim that tells your reader what you intend to prove to them about your topic. Attention Grabbing Opening Brief Explanation of topic THESIS! But before we get too caught up into what a thesis statement is, let us take a look at what a thesis is not.... What a thesis statement is NOT Your topic tells your reader what you are talking about.
Example: I will discuss year-round school policies. -This is not a thesis. This is only a topic -Why? Because your thesis should always be a statement that demands PROOF Your thesis should take a STAND! Once stating your thesis statement, the rest of your paper should be to convince your reader why your opinion is true.
Additionally, your thesis prepares your reader for the facts that will prove your opinion about your topic to be true. Your thesis should be an arguable opinion -NOT a fact. Your Thesis Statement is NOT a fact about your topic. For example:
Pollution is bad for the environment. *If your thesis is something that is generally agreed upon or accepted as fact then there is no reason to try to persuade people. Twenty-five percent of America's federal budget should be spent on limiting pollution. A better thesis statement would be: What a thesis statement is.... the sentence (or two) that answers your reader's biggest question Requirements for a strong thesis: 1. It should not be TOO BROAD
2. It should not be TOO NARROW
3. It should not be TOO VAGUE If your point is too wide or too deep for you you'll find yourself drowning in information unable to prove your point! The death penalty should be banned The death penalty in Alabama has been ineffective in deterring crime and should be replaced with more efforts to reform criminals and not murder them. too broad much better! For example If your thesis is too specific.... you may find yourself trying to stretch the small amount of information you find to fit in your essay For example In Lord of the Rings, the author carefully chose a weapon for each character that was symbolic, and revealed something about them to the reader. too narrow When developing their characters authors will often carefully choose symbolic items to reveal something about them to the reader. much better If your claim is not specific or clear enough... you may find your reader dazed and confused For example If the United States were to get rid of welfare, it would aggravate an already severe homeless problem, cause a rise in crime, and remove the only safety net that our country has in place. too vague A common misconception among many Americans is that welfare programs deteriorate personal initiative and deprive society of needed workers. much better Where should I start? Before trying to decide on a thesis, gather all of the information available on your topic! -How can you have an educated opinion about something that you know little about?

-The more that you know about your topic, the easier it will be to form a provable opinion (thesis) about it.

-It is easier to write a thesis statement that explains what you have found in your research, than to find research that explains what you have written in your thesis!

-You want the opinion that your thesis states to be provable by facts that you have gathered. If you gather the facts first, you KNOW that it can be proven! because.... Your Thesis and Your Topic are NOT the same.
You must choose your topic before beginning your research. REMEMBER: Once you have gathered your information, Ask Yourself a Few Questions: What is the most important thought I have about my topic? What has my research shown me about my topic? What would my reader want to know about my topic? What will be the point of my paper? Your first draft of your thesis will be considered a working thesis To turn your Working Thesis into a Final Thesis Statement, compare it to the requirements for a strong thesis statement: Family may mean different things to different people, but it is an important part of every culture 1. As in many countries, family has a huge impact on American culture.

2. The strength of the family unit impacts each individual regardless of their society. Possible Revisions To Make The Broad Statement More Specific: This is more narrow because we have reduced it to one specific culture. This is more narrow because family is reduced to the family’s strength and society is reduced to the individual. In Conclusion.... 1. Start off with your TOPIC!

2. Before trying to decide on a thesis, gather all of the information available on your topic!
Once you have gathered your information,

Ask Yourself a Few Questions:





4.Use your answers to write a Working Thesis.

5. Turn your Working Thesis into a Final Thesis Statement by comparing it to the requirements for a strong thesis statement:
Is it too broad? Is it too narrow? Is it too vague? -What is the most important thought that I have about my topic?
-What has my research shown me about my topic?
-What would my reader want to know about my topic?
-What will be the POINT of my paper? Homework: Due Wednesday, 9/5 1. Your working thesis statement
2. Worksheet reviewing thesis statements a short statement, usually one sentence, that summarizes the main point or claim of an essay, research paper, etc., and is developed, supported, and explained in the text by means of examples and evidence. What is a thesis statement? The Purpose Introduces reader to the
purpose of the essay(i.e. Topic, claim/position, main ideas, etc.)
It serves as a short sentence summary of the ideas presented in your piece.
Contains supporting details to you're essay. What is a "Thesis Statement"? Attention Grabber/ "Hook"-Attention-getting device—choose any one or any combination of the following: Writing an introduction 1. Question-
a. rhetorical
b. regular
*Do not ask a yes or no question; You can ask a “why” question which will lead to your thesis…this keeps the reader engaged!* 2. Shocking facts or statistics
a. Facts—that which is known to be true
b. Statistics—number facts
Example: "The Black Widow spider's bite can cause coma and even death. The African Black Mamba can kill a man with one bite. But there's an even deadlier predator: cigarettes, produced by big tobacco companies, kill someone every 6 seconds. Don't be big tobacco's next victim." 3. Anecdote—interesting little story; purpose(s) to bring cheer, reminisce, caution, persuade or inspire
a. humorous
b. joke
c. inspirational
Example: The Winner is always a part of the answer; The Loser is always a part of the problem.” 4. Quotation—
a. can be from book/play/poem
b. can be from another source on the same theme as topic
Examples:
1)“Good people do not need laws to tell them to act responsibly, while bad people will find a way around the laws.”
2)“He who commits injustice is ever made more wretched than he who suffers it.”
3)See Moodle document “Hooks” for more examples. 5. Definition (not from the dictionary)
a. own words…Make sure to read two or three different ones before writing
Example: Violence is defined as a behavior or destructive force, which causes harm to another person
1)Violence- Behavior involving physical force intended to hurt, damage, or kill someone or something.
2)Strength of emotion or an unpleasant or destructive natural force. 6. Suspense builder—sets an interesting scene but does not finish the story
7. Descriptive example
8. Set up a situation or a scenario Graphic Organizer Options Helpful Hints Your thesis tells your reader your position on your topic.
Example: Schools should have a year-round program, because the retention of knowledge will be greater, the drop-out rate will be lower, and overall behavior management issues will lessen. -This is a thesis! Write down 3 reasons why it is a "good" example. Why? Explain the reasons to your neighbor and raise your hand once you are done! 1) Should schools be on a year round schedule?

2) Should teachers be allowed to have a firearm in the classroom?

3) Should there be a higher tax implemented upon purchase of a violent video games?

4) Are professional athletes paid too much? Now, write a thesis statement with your partner, regarding one of the following questions: Schools should have a year-round program, because the retention of knowledge will be greater, the drop-out rate will be lowered, and overall behavior management issues will lessen. Claim/Argument
Reason 1
Reason 2
Reason 3
Conjunctions- create cohesion Thesis outline:
Claim, transition (conjunction), Reason 1, Reason 2, transition, Reason 3 What's the point? Transitions The Dos Sentence Starters Appeals Emotional Appeal
-pity or anger Ethical Appeal
-Credibility of the author
-Language-correct and appropriate
-Fair and Unbiased Appeal to Logic/Reason
-Citing Statistics and Facts
-Credible/Authorities on the subject Thesis Statement Faulty Logic Citations http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/614/03/ In-Text Citations In-Text Citations Any information that you take from your sources and include in your writing needs to have an in-text citation (also known as a parenthetical citation).

It's important to give credit to the individuals who took the time to do the research and if you don't, it's considered plagiarism. Questions to Ask Yourself Direct Quotation Example Holland, Suzanne. The Human Embryonic Stem Cell Debate:
Science, Ethics, and Public Policy. Boston: MIT Press, 2001. Print. Direct Quotation Continued If you use the title of the source or the author's name in your sentence you do not have to include it in the in-text citation. Direct Quotation Continued... If there is no author, use the first few words in the title.

Many students are asked to write research papers and "such an assignment often creates a great deal of unneeded anxiety in the student, which may result in procrastination and a feeling of confusion and inadequacy" ("10 Tips" par. 28).

"10 Tips on Writing the Living Web." A List Apart: For
People Who Make Websites. A List Apart Mag., 16 Aug. 2002. Web. 4 May 2009. Information word-for-word from the source (NOT PARAPHRASED)
Introduce your direct quote
Use quotation marks around the information
Include author or first words in the title with page or paragraph number. Some people question the morality of using stem cells in research but "scientists believe stem cells from human embryos could hold the key to treatments and cures for disease" (Holland 13). Holland recognized that "scientists believe stem cells from human embryos could hold the key to treatments and cures for disease" (13). Direct Quotations with More than One Author Smith, Yang, and Neal Moore. The Allyn and
Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring. Boston: Allyn, 2000. Print. Smith, Yang, and Moore argue that tougher gun control is not needed in the United States (76).
The authors state "Tighter gun control in the United States erodes Second Amendment rights" (Smith, Yang, and Moore 76). Paraphrased Information When you write the information in your own words, you still need to CITE the SOURCE, but you DO NOT need quotation marks. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions.”
Social Work and Society: The International Online-Only Journal 6.2 (2008): n. pag. Web. 20 May 2009. Many teenagers prefer to spend their time with friends than around the dinner table ("Research in Youth"). Sources with
Same Title If two or more sources have the same title, include the next portion of the works-cited-list entries in the in-text citation. Source with the Same Title In winter the snowy owl feeds primarily on small rodents (“Snowy Owl,” Hinterland par. 8), but in spring it also feeds on eggs of much larger waterfowl, such as geese and swans (“Snowy Owl,” Arctic par. 13). Page or Paragraph Numbers If your source is electronic, you do not need to include the page numbers, but your teacher may ask you to include the paragraph number. (Robertson 6) or
("Snowy" par. 17) Citing More than One Source in One In-Text Citation (Fukuyama par. 21; McRae par. 1) I.C.E. Introduce
Cite
Explain Let's Practice NARAL argues that parental involvement laws, both ones that require parental notice and those that require parental consent before a minor can seek an abortion, are often harmful to teens.

Felluga, Dino. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory.
Purdue U, 28 Nov. 2003. Web. 10 May 2006.

In Idaho, a 13-year-old student named Spring Adams was shot to death by her father after he learned she was to terminate a pregnancy caused by his acts of incest.

“Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century
England.” Historical Journal 50.1 (2007): 173-96. ProQuest. Web. 27 May 2009. Block Quotations For quotations that extend to more than four lines of verse or prose, place quotations in a free-standing block of text and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, with the entire quote indented one inch from the left margin; maintain double-spacing. Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. (Needs double-spacing)

Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration:

They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow. By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. (Bronte 78) WHEN IN DOUBT,
CITE! And always: Plagiarists Who Publish
Make The News: You Meet the College's Ethics Committee: Major Citation Styles are: APA (American Psychological Association)
University of Chicago/Turabian
MLA (Modern Language Association)
AMA (American Medical Association) Plagiarism: (orig.) to kidnap
now: to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own : use (another's production) without crediting the source Cite, so you don't plagiarize Book: Author(s). Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.

Part of a Book (such as an essay in a collection): Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Collection. Ed. Editor's
Name(s). Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Pages.

Magazine: Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Source Day Month Year:

A webpage: Author(s). Name of Page. Date of Posting/Revision. Date of Access. <electronic address>. Most Common Examples of Citations Works Cited Page Need examples? Use the following link:
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/659/03/ Fallacies Common errors in reasoning
-Undermine the logic Overgeneralizations:
-Drawing a conclusion with too little data
Example- "The elm tree on my block has Dutch elm disease. So does the one on your block. That means all elm trees have Dutch elm disease." Illogical Conclusion:
-Inferring something, not based on data
Example: "It rained all last week and now I have a cold. Rainy weather must cause colds." Personal Bias:
-conclusion based on personal opinion, NOT data
Example: "Wooden bats hit the ball further than aluminum bats, because I can hit further with a wooden bat." Identify the following types of "faulty logic":

1) Schools shouldn't have uniforms, because I wouldn't do it and I would have ISS everyday.

2) Schools shouldn't have uniforms, because clothes allow students to show their individuality, so it 5 years you wouldn't be able to tell the difference between people.

3) Schools shouldn't have uniforms, because students will rebel and cause more problems. Warrants a general principle or assumption that establishes a connection between the support and the claim. 3) Is your “if . . .then” warrant one that would appeal to your readers? Ask yourself the following 3 questions 1) What were my reasons for selecting this evidence for this stance? 2) What is the “if . . . then” relationship between the claim you make in your stance and the particular statistics, authoritative sources, anecdotes, etc. that you are using as evidence? Warrant Claim Evidence Inference, not necessarily a fact Read the following introduction, then:
1) List 3 reasons why this is a great example of an introduction.
2) List 3 ways this introduction could be improved.
*Be as specific as possible* Sample Essays View for:
-Structure, Purpose, Example Citations, Effectiveness, etc.
http://people.oregonstate.edu/~petersp/ORST/WR121_files/argument.htm#Sample Essays http://www.education.com/magazine/article/School_Uniforms/
Author Hannah Boyd
Paragraph 2 Pro-uniform parents say that only worked because schools used to be safer. Now that kids are getting mugged for their designer clothes and expensive sneakers, school uniforms seem a safer alternative to many. Furthermore, uniforms prevent gang members from wearing gang colors and insignia to school, and make it easier for security guards to spot intruders. Main Point: Uniforms are safer
"...kids are getting mugged for their designer clothes and expensive sneakers"

Direct Quotes:
Example: According to Boyd, "...kids are getting mugged for their designer clothes and expensive sneakers", which is one of the many reasons why uniforms are a necessity in schools (par. 2).

Example 2: School uniforms would help to be the equalizer of wealth in schools preventing students from "...getting mugged for their designer clothe and expensive sneakers" (Boyd par. 2)

Paraphrased portion:
Example 3: School uniforms would be safer and would help prevent harm or injury to be caused to the students and would create a more cohesive environment, one which would not thrive on competition (Boyd par. 2) If there weren't an author, this is what we would do:
("School Uniforms" par. 2)
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