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Qualitative Research

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BASMAH HABTAR

on 20 February 2014

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Transcript of Qualitative Research

Qualitative Research
Qualitative Research can be used for

• Anthropology
• Sociology
• Psychology*
• Biology
• History
• Political Science
• Education*
• Medicine
* Psychology and Education were controversial because of the nature of the study but now it is accepted.

Purpose of Qualitative Research
• It can help define what is important and what needs to be studied.
Examples:
Medicine – Use qualitative methods when unique or puzzling cases are first observed
Biologists – Classify newly observed species, create taxonomies, and describe the social behaviors of primates
Qualitative Research involves asking specific questions in order to formulate and test specific hypotheses as well; only ask questions that are about the phenomena that they are studying.
Qualitative Research requires considerable preparation and planning
Qualitative studies do not allow the researcher to identify cause-and-effect relationships.

Purposes of Qualitative Approach
• Description
• Interpretation
• Verification
• Evaluation
Qualitative Research

• It has several approaches to research
Two things in common
• Focus on the phenomena that occur in a natural setting “The Real World”
• Capturing and studying the complexity of those phenomena

The researcher is the instrument
Qualitative Research Designs
• Case Study
• Ethnography
• Phenomenological study
• Grounded Theory Stud
• Content Analysis
Qualitative Research Designs
Definition
: a particular individual, program or event is studied in depth; findings may not
be generalizable.

Method
: The researcher collects extensive data on the individual(s), program(s),
or event(s) on which the investigation is focused.


Data Analysis:
• organization of details about the case
• categorization of data,
• interpretation of single instances,
• identification of patterns, and
• synthesis and generalizations.

Research Report:
• a rationale for studying the case,
• a detailed description of facts related to the case,
• a description of data that was collected,
• a discussion of patterns found, and
• a connection to the larger scheme of things.

Case Study

Definition:
the researcher looks in depth at an entire group that shares a common culture; it is especially useful for understanding complexities of a particular, intact sociocultural group.

Method
: Site-based fieldwork is the essence of any ethnography. The researcher depends on a gatekeeper and key informants and is a careful observer.

Data Analysis
: Data collection and data analysis occur somewhat simultaneously. Steps in data collection include
• description
• analysis
• interpretation

Research Report
: Often written in a personal, literary style and includes
• an introduction providing a rationale for the study
• a description of the setting and methods
• an analysis of the group studies
• a conclusion.
Ethnography
Definition:
The major purpose of a grounded theory study is to begin with the data and use them to develop a theory. The study uses a prescribed set of procedures for analyzing data and constructing a theoretical model from them—the theory is “grounded” in the data.

Method
: Data collection is field-based, flexible, and likely to change over the course of the study. Interviews typically play a major role. A constant comparative method is used in that data analysis drives later data collection.

Data Analysis:
• open coding
• axial coding
• selective coding
• development of a theory.

No matter what form the theory takes, it is based entirely on the data collected.

The Research Report
: Writing is objective and impersonal and includes
• a description of the research question
• a review of the related literature
• a description of methodology and data analysis
• a presentation of the theory
• a discussion of implications
Grounded Theory Study


Definition
: attempts to understand people’s perceptions, perspectives, and understandings
of a particular situation.


Method:
Phenomenological researchers depend almost exclusively on lengthy interviews
with a carefully selected sample of participants. The phenomenological interview is often
unstructured in which
the researcher and participants to arrive at “the heart of the matter.”

Data Analysis:
The central task in data analysis is to identify common themes in people’s
descriptions of their experiences. Steps include

• identifying relevant statements
• grouping statements into “meaning units”
• seeking divergent perspectives
• constructing a composite.

Research Repor
t: There is no specific structure but the report should produce understanding
of the experience.
Phenomenological Study
Definition
: a detailed and systematic examination of the contents of a particular body of material for the purpose of identifying patterns, themes, or biases. A content analysis is typically performed on forms of human communication and involves the greatest amount of planning at the front end of the project.

Method
: A content analysis is systematic and includes
• identification of the material to be studied
• definition of the characteristics to be studied
• a breakdown of complex items into smaller segments
• scrutiny of material for identified characteristics under study

Data Analysis
: Data analysis involves tabulation of the frequency of each characteristic found in the material studied. Tabulations and statistical analyses are used to interpret the data.

The Research Report:
• a description of the material studied
• precise definitions of material characteristics
• the coding or rating procedures
• tabulations for each characteristic.
Content Analysis


-
Qualitative researchers often use multiple forms of data in any single study.
-
Data collected early in the investigation may
influence subsequent data.(
emerging design
)

-
Potential sources of data are unlimited.
-
Data collection takes a great deal of time.

-
Data collection methods should be consistent
with ethical principles of research studies.
(
pseudonyms
)

Data Collection Procedures
Sample
Observation
Interview

sample is the process of selecting a few(sample) of a bigger group



Qualitative researchers typically draw their data from many sources such as people , objects, text materials, and audiovisual and electronic records.




Two types of samples

Random
Nonrandom

1. Be sure that the sample includes not only seemingly “typical” but also seemingly “non-typical” examples.
2. When a power hierarchy exists , the researchers have to take sample from various levels in the hierarchy.
3. Actively look for cases that can potentially discredit emerging hypotheses and theories.


The systematic process of recording the behavioral patterns of people, objects, and occurrences as they are witnessed

It is Recorded notes describing observed events

Types of approach
Ethnography, grounded theory, case studies

Advantage
• Can be unobtrusive
• Can yield actual behavior patterns

Disadvantage
• Can be very expensive with participant-observer series



Interviews can yield a great deal of useful information. The researcher can ask questions related to any of the following:

- Facts
- People’s beliefs and perspectives about the facts
- Feelings
- Motives
- Present and past behaviors
- Standards for behavior
- Conscious reasons for actions

Three types to interview

Semi structured
interview
It revolving around a few
central questions.

Types of approach
Grounded theory, ethnography

Advantage
• Can address more specific issues
• Results can be easily interpreted
• Cost advantages over focus groups and depth interviews .

Disadvantage
• Lack the flexibility
Small group discussions led by
a trained moderator

Types of approaches
Ethnography, case studies

Advantage
• can be done quickly
• Gain multiple perspectives
• Flexibility

Disadvantage
• Results dependent on moderator
• Results do not generalize to larger population
• Difficult to use for sensitive topics




Unstructured interview
Guidelines: Conducting Interviews


1. Identify some questions in advance.
2. Consider participants’ cultural backgrounds on their responses.
3. Make sure interviewees are representative of the group.
4. Find a suitable location.
5. Get written permission.
6. Establish and maintain rapport.
7. Focus on the actual rather than on the abstract or hypothetical.
8. Don’t put words in people’s mouths.
9. Record responses verbatim.
10. Keep your reactions to yourself.
11. Remember that you may not be getting the “facts.”
12. When conducting a focus group, take group dynamics into account
In an effort to learn the nature and appeal
of long-standing social groups among American men, a researcher plans to spend a nine-month period with a local chapter of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. By observing and interacting with the Elks, he hopes to observe the chapter’s meetings, rituals, and charitable activities and to discover the chapter’s beliefs, values, goals, and interpersonal dynamics
Group A
A researcher wants to determine to what degree and in what ways television commercials might portray men and women in traditionally gender-stereotypical ways (e.g., how often men versus women are shown cleaning house, how often men versus women are making important business decisions).
Group B

In an effort to learn the nature and appeal of
long standing social groups
among American men, a researcher plans to spend a nine-month period with a local chapter of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. By observing and interacting with the Elks, he hopes to observe the chapter’s meetings, rituals, and charitable activities and to discover the chapter’s beliefs, values, goals, and interpersonal dynamics



Ethnography
A researcher wants to determine to what degree and in what ways
television commercials
might portray men and women in traditionally gender-stereotypical ways (e.g., how often men versus women are shown cleaning house, how often men versus women are making important business decisions).



Content analysis


Sample
Observation
Interview
Focus group interview
Semi-Structured Interviews
It yields information that the researcher
hadn’t planned to ask for

Types of approaches
Ethnography, case studies

Advantage
it is more flexible

Disadvantage
Their primary disadvantage is that the
researcher gets different information from different people (can't compere)

Suggestions
General Criteria include:
1. Purposefulness: The research question drives the methods used to collect and analyze data
2. Explicitness of assumptions and biases: The researcher identifies and communicates any assumptions, beliefs, values, and biases that may influence data
3. Rigor: the researcher uses rigorous, precise, through methods to collect, record and analyze data
4. Open-mindedness: The researcher shows willingness to modify hypotheses and interpretations.


Evaluating Qualitative Research.
5. Completeness: The researcher depicts the object of study in all of its complexity. The researcher spends sufficient time in the field to understand all nuances of a phenomenon; describes the physical setting, behaviors, and perceptions of participants; and gives readers an in-depth, multifaceted picture of the phenomenon.
6. Coherence: The data yield consistent findings, such that the researcher can present a portrait that “hangs together.” Multiple data sources converge onto consistent conclusions (triangulation), and any contradictions within the data are reconciled.
7. Persuasiveness: The researcher presents logical arguments.
8. Consensus. Other individuals, including the participants in the study and other scholars in the discipline, agree with the researcher’s interpretations and explanations.
9. Usefulness. The project yields conclusions that promote better understanding of the phenomenon, enable more accurate predictions about future events, or lead to interventions that enhance the quality of life.

Chapter (6)
Qualitative Research
By:
Atyaf
Basmah
Jessica

1. Organize the data, perhaps using index cards, manila folders, or a computer database. You may also break down large bodies of text into smaller units, perhaps in the form of stories, sentences, or individual words.


2. Peruse the entire data set several times to get a sense of what it contains as a whole. In the process, you should jot down a few memos that suggest possible categories or interpretations. If your data are in paper form, you might write comments in the margins or use Post-it notes to capture your preliminary thoughts. If your data are in electronic form, you might use the insert comment feature available in many software programs, or you might add your initial impressions in a different font or color or, for a spreadsheet or database, in a separate column or field.


3. Identify general categories or themes, and perhaps subcategories or subthemes as well, and then classify each piece of data accordingly. At this point, you should be getting a general sense of patterns—a sense of what the data mean.


4. Integrate and summarize the data for your readers. This step might include offering propositions or hypotheses that describe relationships among the categories. It might also involve packaging the data into an organizational scheme such as a table, figure, matrix, or hierarchical diagram.






Organizing and Analyzing Data

Using Computer Databases to Facilitate Data Organization and Interpretation


- By storing your data on a computer, you can easily retrieve any piece of information using a relevant keyword, you can sort your data quickly and in multiple ways.
- you will use word processing or similar software to record inter-views and perhaps some of your other data.
- you should back up your files on a flash drive or other external storage device that you store in a safe location
-We suggest that you also consider using computer software to help you organize and interpret your data. For some studies, a simple spreadsheet program such as Excel .
-Other software programs are especially suited for complex qualitative research studies
-Such programs provide a ready means of storing, segmenting, and organizing lengthy field notes, and they are designed to help you find patterns in your notes. Typically you can transfer—in computer language,
-you can import —word processing files into the programs; some programs let you include photographs, audiotapes, and videotapes as well
Data Collection in Qualitative Research

Sample depend on the research question(s)that researcher (s) want to answer.
Suggestions

3. As the researchers observe, remain relatively quiet and inconspicuous, yet be friendly to anyone who approaches them.
4. When the researchers want to write their observations, they need to divide a paper to two columns left one for observations right one for primary interpretations

- Observations
- Semi Structured Interviews
1. Before the researchers start the study, they need to examine the observation strategies (field notes, audiotapes, videotapes) then identify what of them is better for this study.
2. The researchers have to introduce themselves for people that they will observe then describe the purpose of study deeply.
suggestion
In an effort to learn the nature and appeal of long-standing social groups among American men, a researcher plans to spend a nine-month period with a local chapter of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. By observing and interacting with the Elks, he hopes to observe the chapter’s meetings, rituals, and charitable activities and to discover the chapter’s beliefs, values, goals, and interpersonal dynamics
Group A
A researcher wants to determine to what degree and in what ways television commercials might portray men and women in traditionally gender-stereotypical ways (e.g., how often men versus women are shown cleaning house, how often men versus women are making important business decisions).
Group B
of which will not. Furthermore, the data you obtain are apt to be multifaceted and may simultaneously reflect several distinct meanings. In a qualitative study, the interpretation of the data will inevitably be influenced by the researcher’s biases and values to some extent, . Nevertheless, we urge you to do as much as you can to minimize the extent to which your prior expectations and opinions enter into your final analysis, perhaps by using some or all of the following strategies:

■ Collect two or more different kinds of data (e.g., observations, interviews) related to any particular phenomenon.

■ Get multiple and varying perspectives on any single issue or event.

■ Make a concerted effort to look for evidence that contradicts your hypotheses.

■ In your final research report, acknowledge any biases you have, so that your readers can take them into account when reading the report.

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