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Transcript of Geology :D
how they are made, where they come from etc
etc et-boring-cetra Igneous rocks are rocks formed from the MELTING of material, and the re-SOLIDIFYING of this to form ignrous rocks. Sedimentary Metamorphic rocks are the rocks formed
my the morphing of rocks
This is done by and HEAT PRESUURE Most sedimentary rocks are formed
from produced as a result of Clasts Weathering Contact Regional Contact metamorphism is the change in rocks due to heat. this causes large crystaled rock Regional Metamorphism, is the change of rocks due to mainly pressure, and some heat. this causes Layered Rocks, such as and Shale Schist Types of rocks Slate
Gneiss Spotted rock
Marble Grey or purple with Darker
spots Slatey cleavage is the
parent rock is slate. Fine grain
size. Poorly formed minerals in
White or grey rock,
Grain incrases with grade. Quarts minerals
in it. Granobastic Granoblastic The Texture of a rocks, with interlocking
equigranular crystals. White rock. Granoblastic, medium grains
(increases with metamorphic grade. Calcite
present. Reacts with dilute HCL. Low Grade rock, with layers of rocks, at 90 to the direxction of maximum pressure. Medium grade rock, in wavy cleavage
with a prophyroblastic texture. the cleavages at 90 to the direction of maximum pressure. High grade rock, with bands. Intrusive Extrusive Intrusions Lava Flows Sill Dyke Pluton A sill, is a hrozontal intrusion.
this makes medium - fine grained
rocks. sills have both 2 cooled and 2
A dyke is a vertical intrusion.
This makes a medium - fine grained
rock. Dykes are very much like Sills,
but are Vertical A Pluton is a large intrusion. It
makes a coarse grained rock. A pluton
will have a very large metamorphic
Aureole. All of these are formed by Magma Peridotite This is an Ultramafic rock,
which is low in silica. This is
formed a a very high temperature
usually has olivine and plagioclase
feldspar Gabbro This is a mafic rock. it is dark in colour. plagioclase feldspar and pyroxene are the main minerals. gabbro is also . this is also coarse grained. Dolerite This is a medium grained rock, with or equigranular texture. containd dark minerals. such as feldspar and aqugite. It is a mafic rock. Equigranular. This is where the crystals are all the same size. Porphyritic texture This is where the rock has two stages
of cooling and therefore has different
sized crystals Granite This is a light coloured rock. With orthoclase feldspar, mica, and hornblende crystals present. Prominently quartz. this is also a coarse grained rock; and is silicic. Obsidian Obsidian is a fine grained rock. but is in the glassy region, meaning it has cooled VERY quickly. obsidian is a Silicic rock. Basalt This is a fine grained rock, it is dark and may have vesicles. It cointains feldspar and augite.
It is also a mafic rock. Rocks AA Lava Rough blocky, with a jaggedy surface. Pahoehoe lava Flows with a smooth and ropey surface. Pillow lavas These form when the lava comes directly into contact with water and cools rapidly forming a blister like bubble somtimes called a pillow Columnar jointing This is when the lava had cooled and contracted to form column like cracks in the lava. this is seen at giants causeway Equigranular Porphyritic Sedimentary Formations Weathering Chemical Rocks that decompose due to chemical reations; allof which including water. Commonly rocks with calcite and feldspar present Carbonation. The Chemical alteration and mechanical and biological breakdown of rocks but exposure to the atmosphere, water and/or oranic matter. Carbonic acid, is formed when carbon dioxide reacts with Groundwater. This then reacts with the minerals in the rock (usually limestone) making them effervess, and thereofre be diluted in solution. Any impurities in the limestone are left as clay deposits. CaCO + H CO Ca + HCO Hydrolosis 3 2 3 2+ 2 3 - This is the reaction between water and silicate minerals such as felpsar. this produces clay residue in solution. Physical Exfoliation: this is where rocks are hot and then cool very quickly, meaning that they expand and contract causing the rock to disintegrate. (this happens in deserts under sudden but infrequent downpours) Frost Shattering: EVERYONE KNOWS ABOUT FREEZE THAW WEATERING!!!!!!!!! Bioloical The Decomposure of rocks, due to physical Effects. The decomposure of rocks, due to animals and/or plants changing the shape and texture of them. In Situ Root action: roots burrow into rocks, and make them have holes, making them mechanically weather, then water gets into the cracks, and makes them chemically weather. this is the same when animals burrow. Dune Bedding Ripple Marks Graded Bedding Mud Cracks Sole Marks Flame Structures This occurs when the wind blows the sand/clasts, into shapes like this: this happens when the current of the water pushes the clasts into shapes like this: (usually in a marine environment) The smaller particles settle more slowly than the larger particles, due to the pull of gravity. The smaller particles tend to stay in suspension for longer periods of time. This is caused by the mud/clasts being supersaturated, aand then drying out, making them expand and contract to form thr mud cracks. The is caused by rocks bouncing on the floor of the sea or river, creating these long tracks, where it has been. this can be used as a way up criteria. This is caused by large pressure, causing the layers to be deformed