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KIN 330 - Berry College - Dept. of Kinesiology

David Elmer

on 21 September 2015

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Transcript of Practice

Chapter 11
if there are time limitations on practice, it is important to organize the practice to maximize learning
need to understand the conditions of practice to do so effectively
the Law of Practice
more practice = more learning
more practice = better performance
attention & performance, accuracy, coordination
practice, learning, feedback, retention
a process of acquiring the capability to produce skilled actions
occurs as a direct result of practice
cannot be observed directly, but is inferred based on changes in performance
produces relatively permanent changes in capability
it's a "negatively accelerating" function
diminishing returns
log-log transformation makes it look linear
improvement is linearly related to the amount left to improve
exponential relationship
deliberate practice
activities specially designed to to improve the current levels of performance
requires effort and is not necessarily enjoyable
individuals are motivated to practice because practice improves performance
without it, very little learning and improvement (if any)
make the task seem important to the learner
set goals
provide focus for activities
regulate effort directed toward activities
help maintain vigilance in reaching goals
serve as a reference to compare achievements
verbal information
provided to the learner before they ever physically practice a task
instructional set
verbal instructions, usually provided by a teacher or instructor
initial orientation
can have long lasting effects on task performance
gives an overall idea or image of what the movement should look like
can help stimulate error-detection capabilities
focus of attention
focusing on a component of a movement that is external is more effective than focusing on an internal component
within intrinsic focus...
e.g. balancing with a tube in both hands
using analogies may aid in getting learners to think externally
remember, words are crude descriptions, and too many instructions can hinder performance
learning without awareness
e.g. subjects completing programmed tracking tasks
each task is different, but one component is the same each time
without realizing that a component of the task was the same each time, performance on that component improved with each trial
subjects weren't aware they were practicing, but they did have an external focus
knowledge of mechanical principles
understanding the underlying principles that govern a task can improve performance if the knowledge is directly tied to an improved outcome
understanding the principle of refraction aids in performance of shooting at underwater targets
knowledge of the mechanics of balance do not aid in cycling performance
perceptual learning
many open skills require the use of perceptual info received in advance
pre-practice, expose the learner to the environmental stimuli that are part of the task
presents spatial and temporal regularities without the pressure of simultaneous performance of a new task
good off-task training when physical practice is not practical or possible
observational learning
specific type of perceptual learning
watching someone else complete a task
useful for picking up:
movement strategies
spatial sequencing
better if watching either a skilled performer or someone else learning the task
watching someone else learn a task is especially useful if the observer gets the same feedback of results as the model
gain visual and auditory info about the movement
gain info from feedback the model receives
see improvement by model using the feedback on the next performance
watching a skilled performance is only beneficial if you know or are told specifically what to watch or look for
person B is in boat, watching person A...
person B's turn...
"bend your knees!!!"
= not helpful
mental practice
brain imaging shows similar activation in real and imagined practice
distribution of practice
very little time between practice trials
longer rest intervals between practice trials
continuous tasks
discrete tasks
short rest periods degrade performance relative to performance with longer rest periods
total practice time
distributed practice increases the learning per amount of training time
massed practice results in less learning but takes less time
e.g. maximizing improvement in 2 weeks
maximizing improvement in 10 hours of practice
massed practice may be more effective than distributed practice if testing occurs under massed conditions
e.g. lots of consecutive trials
long term practice indicates that distributed practice is more effective than massed practice
variability of practice
is variability a good thing?
open vs. closed skills?
closed skill retention:
including variability improved retention!
retention vs. transfer?
closed skill transfer:
knock over a barrier at a particular distance with a goal movement time of 200 ms
stop light in correct spot:
constant group - light travels at same speed
variable group - light travels at different speeds
transfer to a novel speed:
hand grip goal force of 150N
- only practice 150N force
- same amount of 150N practice, but also include 100N, 125N, 175N, and 200N
- same total amount of practice as the variable group, but all at 150N
consistent group 1
variable group
consistent group 2
factors influencing effects of variability
age of learner
much more effective in children than adults
practicing only variations of a novel task is sometimes more beneficial than practicing the actual task
nature of task
absolute timing of a task - better if variation is included
relative timing of a task - better with consistent practice
some aspects of the same task may be learned better under consistent conditions, with other aspects learned with variability
variable practice is most effective in a randomized sequence rather than in blocked sequences
schema theory...
contextual interference
variability is better!
distributed is more efficient!
by organizing the practice to make it more difficult, acquisition performance suffers, but retention and transfer improves
theory: random organization makes practice more difficult, thus improving retention & transfer
random practice (or other sources of contextual interference) enhances learning
holds true for...
rapid, accurate movements
timing actions
perceptual anticipation
force regulation
error-detection capabilities
complex sport tasks
task influences
subject influences
effect of randomization is enhanced in experienced performers
serial practice:
may improve acquisition performance without sacrificing long-term benefits of random practice
may be more practical to implement than totally random practice
small, randomized blocks
randomization is best!
hypotheses on contextual interference effects
"performance-learning paradox"
elaborative processing
random practice results in an elaborate conceptual processing
promotes comparative and contrastive analysis abilities for actions required by the tasks
results in more meaningful understanding of the tasks and differences in versions of the task
confirmed verbally by subjects
forgetting and reconstructing
based on retrieving and implementing a generalized motor program (task)
if repeating trials, task still in working memory
when randomized, previous task must be abandoned and a different task must be retrieved
returning to a previous action forces the components of the task to be reconstructed
potentially the root for improved retention and transfer
only evidence against this hypothesis is that blocked practice is better than random practice for learning relative timing when only one GMP is practiced
according to hypothesis they should be the same
interesting motivational problem:
blocked practice results in subjects overestimating predicted retention performance
random practice results in subjects underestimating predicted retention performance
must encourage teachers and learners to adopt random practice even though it doesn't seem as effective at first
we have a hard time dissociating short-term performance with long-term learning
scheduling practice:
part vs. whole practice
benefits of part-practice:
eliminate need of repeating simple parts of a task - focus on the hard stuff
may be effective if task is complex and cannot be learned all at once
problem with part-practice:
isolation may change the motor-programming of the part - makes it a different task
effectiveness depends on the type of task
part-practice is effective
sometimes, transfer to the whole task is greater than if the whole-task has been practiced for the same amount of time
allows the learner to focus on parts that need the most work
blocked practice inhibits learning
= discrete tasks linked in a specific sequence
usually, parts that can be isolated occur at the same time as other parts of the movement
= coordinated parts
part-practice results in learning, but not as much as practicing the whole task
learning to coordinate the different interacting parts of the movement may be critical
exception - may help learn a task with a large perceptual component
(e.g. polyrhythms)
part-practice is not effective for tasks lasting < 1 sec
practice may actually hurt performance
sequential parts
part-practice may be effective if there is a "break" in the task
may indicate more than one motor program is at work
(e.g. tennis serve)
simultaneous parts
- no research, only speculation
(e.g. simultaneous bimanual tasks)
part-practice could be a form of "off-task" practice, aiding in spatial and temporal learning for the task
learner is physically assisted through the task to be learned
initiate correct movements
prevent incorrect movements
improves performance during acquisition
prevents errors from occurring
but prevents learning also!
guidance that allows some error or minimal "guidance-as-needed" may be beneficial
giving initial general orientation of a movement
slow movements that involve matching a perceived state (like a position)
not effective:
rapid, ballistic tasks
learning a new motor program
in general...
minimal at most
specificity of learning hypothesis
seems like common sense, but it's not entirely true
visual availability during task
level of arousal during practice
context of practice

distributed practice
random practice
variable practice

the similarity of underlying process (not conditions) is potentially the reason for effective retention and transfer
motor control
motor learning
Do your best... (?)
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