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Introduction to International History, Part II

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Matthew Funaiole

on 5 March 2015

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Transcript of Introduction to International History, Part II

Intro to International History, Part II
Dr. Matthew P. Funaiole
The First World war brought about the collapse of the Imperialist world order.
Power shift.
Review from Last Week
The Versailles-Washington System
Far too expansive of topic to delve into in this lecture. Ask for literature.
Intro to Intro to Intro to WWII
Peace in Our Time?
WWII Outcome: Germany Divided
Nuclear Weapons
Division of Germany between Allied Powers.
One of the most defining characteristics of the Cold War was the introduction of nuclear weapons.
Introduction to International History, Part II
Overview of the Day
1920s-1980s
The Collapse of the League of Nations
Collapse of System
The Great Depression (Oct 29 1929)
Unemployment skyrockets. 25% in U.S.
International trade falls by 50%
Isolationist foreign policy and rising
nationalism
Towards the Cold War
Tension over the division of Germany and the rebuilding of Europe leads to
structural
tension between the US and USSR.
Cold War Bipolarity
Nature of Conflict
The pursuit of more devastating, longer range nuclear weapons led to an
arms race
between the US and USSR.
Phases of the Cold War (1 and 2)
Containment (1947-62):
American strategy rested on two premises: (1) Soviet expansion must be halted; (2) by this in turn would create the preconditions for undermining Soviet power.
Preview of Next Week
We will discuss the final stages of the Cold War and look at the Soviet war in Afghanistan.
Overview of the Second World War (WWII)
Dynamics of the Cold War
Nature of Conflict
MAD/deterrence prevented direct confrontation. The geopolitical rivalry led to competition elsewhere.
Proxy Wars
: wars in which the main actors face conflict through the use of secondary actors.
Both sides became involved in civil wars and political coups around the world.
Introduction of the League of Nations, which institutionalized
collective security
.
Collapse of old states
Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman, and Russian Empires collapse.
Rise of
Japan
&
Soviet Union
.
Creation of Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
The idea or practice of common defense, in which a number of states pledge themselves to defend each other, based on the principle of
all for one and one for all
.
Heywood 447.
Definition of Collective Security
Through the
Paris Peace Conference
(1919) and
Washington Naval Conference
(1921-22) America and Britain instituted a new international order based upon the ideas of international liberalism.
Security Dilemma.
The new order froze the postwar
status quo
between the victorious Western Allies; the dissatisfied secondary powers of Germany and Italy; and outliners such as Japan and the Soviet Union
Examples in policies:
Dec 1921
The Four Power Treaty
(Japan, France, UK, US). No attacks on colonies.
Feb 1922
The Five Power Treaty
(Japan, France, UK, US, Italy) - warship caps.
Aug 1928:
Kellogg-Briand Pact
prohibits war as an instrument of foreign policy
Jan 1920
The League of Nations
is founded by Allied Powers.
States disenfranchised with the Versailles-Washington System begin to exert change on the system.
Germany
rebounds,
Japan
expands in China, the
Soviet Union
established as an alternative great power.
The war broke out due to a confluence of factors. We will look briefly at the causes and sides during the war.
The structural consequences of the war had a lasting impact. Emergence of
Cold War
.
Disenfranchised Powers
Germany
Blamed for WWI. Feelings of victimization and injustice. Versailles Treaty and war costs left country bankrupt. Desired global status. Denied membership in League of Nations until 1926.
Rise of Hitler and Nazi Party
. Indoctrination and racism.
Japan
Rebuffed by Western allies in the postwar period. Racial Equality Clause of 1919. Unbalanced disarmament. Power gap in Asia. Radical
Militarization
(Mukden Incident 1931).
Italy
Rise of
Fascism
- radical form of nationalism. Foreign influences seen as degenerate. Concentration of power with
Mussolini
who stressed racial purity, violence, and war.
Germany
expands into Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938. British policy of appeasement. War exhaustion & peace at all costs.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00x6srn
Alliance System
Japan
invades China in 1937. Rapidly expands territory across all of Asia.
Germany, Italy, and Japan sign an alliance, the
Tripartite Pact
, on 27 September 1940.
The alliance system of Europe defined the nature of the conflict.
Axis Powers
Germany, Italy, Japan
Allied Forces
Britain, France, Soviet Union, and U.S (Pearl Harbor).
Ongoing industrialization led the catastrophic destruction of resources and human lives.
Technological breakthroughs: aeronautics, the jet engine, ballistic missiles, and nuclear weapons
Deadliest military conflict in history. 50-80 million deaths (38-55m civilians, 22-25m military). The USSR lost between 21-28m, ~15% of population.
Holocaust
and
Nanjing Massacre
.
"It may be pointless to try to establish which World War Two Axis aggressor, Germany or Japan, was the more brutal to the peoples it victimised. The Germans killed six million Jews and 20 million Russians [i.e. Soviet citizens]; the Japanese slaughtered as many as 30 million Filipinos, Malays, Vietnamese, Cambodians, Indonesians and Burmese, at least 23 million of them ethnic Chinese. Both nations looted the countries they conquered on a monumental scale, though Japan plundered more, over a longer period, than the Nazis. Both conquerors enslaved millions and exploited them as forced labourers—and, in the case of the Japanese, as [forced] prostitutes for front-line troops. If you were a Nazi prisoner of war from Britain, America, Australia, New Zealand or Canada (but not Russia) you faced a 4% chance of not surviving the war; [by comparison] the death rate for Allied POWs held by the Japanese was nearly 30%"
Chalmers Johnson
Denazification
of population.
Competition over Germany's future.
Marshall Plan.
WWII Outcome: Japan Occupied
Japan stripped of colonies, exits China.
Hirohito remains in power.
Allied occupation and pacifist constitution.
WWII Other Outcomes
End of European dominance in world affairs. Decolonization movement.
US and USSR emerge as main powers. Bipolarity
Establishment of
United Nations
. Replaces defunct League of Nations. Allies given seat on Security Council.
Soviets do not accept US regional dominance in Europe and Pacific. Fear
containment
by US.
Structural constraints are exacerbated by ideological differences.
US -> Democratic rights, capitalism, and free trade.
USSR -> Workers rights, socialism, and managed economy.
Bipolarity political and military tension between the Western Bloc powers (the United States, its
NATO
allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the
Warsaw Pact
). Post-WWII (1947) until 1991.
Characterized an intense rivalry that never escalated into full scale conflict, but that heavily impacted global politics.
A form of imperialism, where both superpowers tried to carve out distinct spheres of influence.
First used by the US in August 1945 on the Japanese cities of
Hiroshima
and
Nagasaki
.
Resulted in a state of
deterrence
.
Mutually Assured Destruction
inhibited either side from direct aggression.
Korean War (1950-3), Vietnam War(1955-75), Afghanistan (1979-1989)
Also led to technological and ideological competition, such as the
Space Race
. Prestige.
Détente (1962-1979):
A scaling back of hostilities and easing of strained relations.
Berlin Blockade, Marshall Plan
in Europe, Truman's
NSC 68
(1950)
Reached height during the
Berlin Crises
and
Cuban Missile Crisis
.
Emergency Hotline established between Washington and Moscow
Movement against nuclear proliferation resulting in armament control through
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
(
SALT
).
Sino-American
Rapprochement
(1972)
Discuss the collapse of the Cold War system and emergence of American unipolarity.
Examine the current international system, and the prevailing security threats.
Full transcript