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Earth Systems

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by

Mark Gaughan

on 20 April 2011

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Transcript of Earth Systems

EARTH SYSTEMS - Earth's natural processes that make life possible These include:
Nutrient Cycles
Geology and Tectonic Plates
Changes in Matter
Air Circulation
Currents
Air and Soil Composition Nutrient Cycles Water
Carbon
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Sulfur see 'Living World' review for specifics on cycles The Phosphorus Cycle is the only major nutrient cycle that does not involve interaction with the atmosphere. Plate Tectonics and Geological Cycles Earth's main geological systems occur below the earths crust, the outermost layer of the planet on which life is supported. Layers of planet earth in descending order:
Crust
Mantle
Outer Core
Inner Core when tectonic plates collide, separate, or move past each other, they expand or widen bodies of water and have potential to cause natural disaters Tectonic plates are moved by convection cells. these currents transport liquid and solid rock to the outer mantle (lithosphere) and then fall back to the core again. Tectonic plate movement is totally subject to these convection cells. Types of plate boundaries:
Divergent (plates move apart)
Convergent (one plate is subducted under another)
Transform faults (plates slide past each other)
Minerals and the Rock Cycle Plate Tectonics Types of Weathering of rock:
Biological (Trees and plants weather)
Chemical (Acids, water, gases weather)
Physical/Mechanical (Wind, rain, NATURE) The Rock Cycle many ways of extracting minerals and rocks through rogue mining methods are extremely detrimental to the overall environmental condition of an area. Changes in Matter High Quality vs. Low Quality Matter
Solid Gas
Salt Salt Water
Coal Power Plant Emissions
Gasoline Automobile Emissions
Aluminum Can Aluminum Ore high quality matter tends to be concentrated and has large potential for use. low quality matter is often dilute and is seldom used as a resource. Air Circulation and Climate Air circulation, the distribution of warm and cold air, is a huge factor in determining worldwide climates. Coriolis Effect - Because of Earth's rotation, the air at the equator moves faster than the air at the poles, creating major surface wind patterns Air is circulated in large loops called convection cells. In these cells, moist, warm air rises, and the cooler air drops back down to earth. There are six major convection cells which leads to uneven distribution of heat and moisture. This creates the several biomes of Earth today.
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