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Anatomy of the ear

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by

Jennifer Tarnay

on 20 October 2013

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Transcript of Anatomy of the ear

ANATOMY
OF THE EAR

How Hearing Works--Do you know sound moves in waves??
OTHER PARTS OF THE EAR
pinna
external auditory meatus a.k.a the ear canal
* illness during pregnancy
* heredity
* childhood illnesses (mumps, measles, chicken pox)
* viral infections (meningitis)
* prolonged high fever
* physical damage to head or ear
* exposure to excessive or intense noise (loud music,
gunfire, etc.)
Audiologist
Person who studies the transmission of sound. An audiologist will test your hearing.

HEARING MEASUREMENT
CAUSES OF A SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS
WHO CHECKS YOUR HEARING?
Many of the terms we will discuss come from the same root word: Audio
Meaning:
Audio – related to the transmission of sound.

Others:
ologist – person who studies.
meter – unit of measurement.
gram – chart or graph.

ANATOMY
OUTER EAR
MIDDLE EAR
tympanic membrane or the ear drum
auditory ossicles
malleus, incus, stapes
hammer, anvil, stirrup
INNER EAR
oval window
semicircular canals
cochlea
auditory nerve
AUDIOGRAMS of CONDUCTIVE and SENSORINEURAL
SEMICIRCULAR CANALS
The Eustachian tube is another part of the middle ear.
It allows air in or out of the middle ear when a person swallows or yawns.
AUDIOGRAM
The Semicircular Canals are attached to the outside of the cochlea.

They help with balance and the feeling of movement.
TWO KINDS OF HEARING LOSS
EUSTACHIAN TUBE
CONDUCTIVE: sound is not conducted through the outer ear canal to the eardrum and the tiny bones of the middle ear

SENSORINEURAL: damage in the inner ear, or to the nerve pathways from the inner ear to the brain

MIXED: combination of conductive & sensorineural
CONDUCTIVE
HEARING LOSS
* infections that fill the middle ear with fluid
* ruptured eardrum
* interference (such as build-up of wax)
* a change in the shape of the ear structures
* damage caused by a foreign object (i.e. a pencil, stick)
* missing or occluded (obstructed) ear canal
*allergies
WHAT DOES AN AUDIOLOGIST USE TO MEASURE YOUR HEARING?
Audiometer
A machine used to measure hearing through the transmission of sound.

It measures high tones and low tones. It measures loud sounds and soft sounds.


A graph that shows the measure of sound transmitted.
The audiologist will write down what you hear on an audiogram
CAUSES OF A CONDUCTIVE
HEARING LOSS
How Do We Hear?
The pinna (auricle)
catches the sound
waves.
PINNA
EAR DRUM
The sound waves travel
through the ear canal.
The ear canal is also
called the EXTERNAL
AUDITORY MEATUS.
The sound vibrations
cause the eardrum or
TYMPANIC MEMBRANE
to vibrate.
EAR
CANAL
The middle ear consists of a small air-filled space. Inside this space are 3 small bones, called OSSICLES.
OSSICLES
The COCHLEA is a snail-shaped
organ where vibrations change
into nerve energy. When the
OSSICLES move, they put pressure
on the fluid filled cochlea. The
hair cells in the cochlea bend
and change sound vibrations
into nerve energy.
AUDITORY NERVE
hammer
malleus
anvil
incus
stirrup
stapes
COCHLEA
The nerve impulse
travels through the
auditory nerve to the
portion of the brain
that receives and
understands the nerve
impulse from the ear.
SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS
A hearing loss in the
outer or middle ear is
called a conductive
hearing loss.
A hearing loss in the inner ear or auditory nerve is called a sensorineural hearing loss.
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