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Philippine Media During Martial Law
Transcript of Philippine Media During Martial Law
Philippine Media During Martial Law
Why did Marcos want to control the press during the Martial Law?
- Media can reach, connect, and inform millions of viewers, listeners, readers, and audiences in a period of time.
- If the government manipulates the media, it can create itself a wholesome image and make it appear that there is nothing wrong with the country and the government.
- If the press is paralyzed, the people are left ignorant to the real situation of the country.
- Catalyst of great deception
Timeline Of Mass Media during Martial Law
References: Jun Tariman's Prezi on Martial Law and a Decade of Press Suppression
What is Martial Law?
According to Article VII, Section 10 of the 1935 Philippine Constitution
In case of
thereof, when the public safety requires it, he (the President) may suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus, or place the Philippines or any part thereof under Martial Law.
The Martial Law Era (1972-1986)
Described as the
Era of Guided Media
Rise of the Alternative Press
Mass media controls were established.
Editors and journalists were among the first to be arrested and incarcerated in military prison camps.
It was a time of Marcos Media vs. Mosquito Press or the alternative press.
Media ownership became more concentrated in the hands of a few individuals or families close to the regime.
There was monopolistic ownership of telecommunications by the regime's favored relatives and friends.
September 23, 1972
Media and opposition personalities known to be critical against Marcos are taken to military camps for investigation and detention. The series of interrogation of the media by the military intelligence begins.
September 25, 1972
The Department of Public Information (DPI) issues Order No. 1 requiring all media publications to get a clearance from the DPI, and Order No. 2 which prohibits printers "from producing any form of publication for mass dissemination without permission from DPI." On this day, the Philippine Daily Express restarts publication.
October 28, 1972
Marcos issues Presidential Decree (PD) 33 which "penalizes the printing, possession, and distribution of leaflets and other materials, and even graffiti which 'undermine the integrity of the government.'"
September 22, 1972
Through Letter of Instruction no. 1, Marcos orders the closure of media establishments like Manila Times; Daily Mirror; Manila Chronicle; Manila Daily Bulletin; Philippine Daily Express; Philippines Herald; Philippine Free Press, Graphic; and the Nation as well as wire agencies.
September 21, 1972
Ferdinand Marcos signs Proclamation No. 1081 placing the country under martial law.
January 6, 1973
Marcos issues PD 90 penalizing rumor mongering. Rumor, according to the decree, is "false news and information and gossip which undermines the stability of government."
May 11, 1973
Marcos issues PD 191 abolishing the Mass Media Council and creating the Media Advisory Council. The Foreign Correspondents Association of the Philippines is formed to protect the rights of journalists working for foreign-based news agencies. Like local journalists, foreign correspondents undergo censorship. In an interview with PJR Reports, former New York Times correspondent Alice Colet Villadolid says they go to Malacañang everyday to have their articles checked and approved by the Office of the Press Secretary.
November 9, 1974
PD 576 abolishes the Media Advisory Council and the Bureau of Standards for Mass Media. But, on November 11 of the same year, Marcos authorized the organization of regulatory councils for print and broadcast media through PD 576-A. The Philippine Council for Print Media and the Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster ng Pilipinas were formed.
February 3, 1976
Marcos issues PD 885 forbidding the creation of "subversive" organizations. It included "preparing documents, leaflets and any other types of publication, and advising and counseling members of 'subversive' organizations" as among the punishable acts. The penalty for crimes against public order is increased through PD 942.
October 8, 1980
Marcos issues PD No. 727 making "unlawful the malicious dissemination of false information."
September 12, 1980
Marcos issues PD No. 1737 or the Public Order Act. This "empowered him to issue orders as he may deem necessary" in order to clamp down on "subversive publications or other media of mass communication" and "ban or regulate the holding of entertainment (or exhibitions) deemed 'detrimental to the national interest.'" Under this, he was also "empowered to order the preventive detention of persons and to prohibit the wearing of certain uniforms or emblems."
January 17, 1981
Marcos issues Proclamation No. 2045 "lifting" martial law.