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The Human Body
Transcript of The Human Body
Macy Corcoran, Grace Dittman, Marie Nygard
The Nervous System
The Nervous system recognizes and coordinates the body's response to change. These changes occur in the internal and external environments. There are two types of nervous systems: the Central Nervous System and the Peripheral Nervous System.
Major Parts of the Nervous System
Nervous System Disorders
Losing a sense
The Skeletal System
The skeletal system supports the body. This system protects the internal organs, and allows movement. This system provides a site for blood cell.
Major Players in the Skeletal System
Important Nervous System Vocabulary
Neuron- A cell that carries messages throughout the nervous system
Cell body- Contains the nucleus and much of the cytoplasm
Dendrite- Short, branched extension that spread out from the cell body
Axon- Long fibers that carry impulses away from the cell body
Myelin sheath- Insulating membrane
Resting potential- The difference in electrical charge across the cell membrane of a resting neuron
Action potential- When the inside of a membrane gains a positive charge and the outside gains a negative charge
Threshold- The minimum level of a stimulus that is required to activate a neuron
Synapse- The location at which a neuron can transfer an impulse to a another cell
The Circulatory System
This system brings oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to cells. The Circulatory System also removes cell wastes. This system helps fight infection and regulates body temperature.
Skeletal System Vocabulary
Periostem- A tough layer of connective tissue
Haversain canal- A network of tubes running through compact bone
Bone marrow- Cavities that contain soft tissue
Ossification- A process in which cartilage is replaced by bone
Joint- A place where one bone attaches to the other
Ligament- A tough connective tissue
Facts on the skeletal system
Bones provide a system of levers on which muscles act to produce movement
Bones are a solid network of living cell and protein fibers that are supported by deposits of calcium salts.
Freely movable joints are classified by the type of movement they permit.
Major Players in the Circulatory System
Facts about the Circulatory System
The circulatory system is divided into two pathways
There are 3 types of blood vessels in this system- The arteries, capillaries, and veins
The blood vessels contain connective tissue, smooth muscle, and endothelium
The Respiratory System
The respiratory system provides oxygen. This oxygen is needed for cellular respiration. It also removes Co2 from the body.
2) Heart Murmur
During inhalation the the diaphragm contracts, increasing the size of the chest cavity.
Gas exchange occurs by diffusion across the membrane of an alveolars and a capillary.
In high altitudes you must wear an oxygen mask because there is not enough oxygen.
Pharynx- serves as the sageway for both air and food
Trachea-the wind pipe
Larynx- located at the top of the trachea
Bronchi- 2 large passageway in chest cavity
Alveolars- millions of tiny air sacs
Diaphragm- large flat muscles located at the bottom of the chest cavity.
Nicotine-a stimulate drug that increases heart rate and blood pressure.
Emphysema- the loss of elasticity in the tissues of the lungs
Neurotransmitter- Chemicals used by a neuron to transmit an impulse across a synapse to another cell
Meninges- Three layers of connective tissue
Cerebrospinal fluid- A fluid that bathes the brain and spinal cord and acts as a shock absorber that protects the central nervous system
Cerebrum- The largest and most prominent region of the human brain
Cerebellum- The second largest region of the human brain
Brain stem- Connects the brain and spinal cord
Thalamus- Receives messages from the sense organs
Hypothalamus- The control center for recognition and analysis of hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger, and body temperature
Reflex- A quick, automatic response to stimulus
The digestive system begins with the mouth and extends through the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine, ending with the rectum and anus. When this converts the food it turns food into simpler molecules that can be used by the cells of the blody. It also asorbs food.
Your teeth tear your food in the digestive system
The pancreas secretes enzymes that help break down carbohydrates
Digestive enzymes break down foods and make nutrients available to the body.
Amylase- an enzyme that breaks down the chemical bonds in starches and releases sugars
Esophagus- a food tube that leads into the stomach
Peristalsis- contractions that squeeze the food through the esophagus
stomach- a large muscle sac
Chyme- a mixture made of fluids and foods
Small Intestine- a digestive organ in which most chemical digestion takes place
Pancreas- a gland that is located just behind the stomach
Liver- a large organ located just above and to the right of the stomach, and also produces bile, a fluid baded with lipids and salts
Villus- folded surfaces of the small intestines
Large Intestine- removes water from the undigested material that is left
The Excretory system eliminates waste products of metabolism from the body. This system maintains homeostasis. Also sweat has to do with the Excretory system.
The skin is an organ of the Excretory system
The skin excretes water, salts, and urea sweat
The kidneys play an important part in maintaining homeostasis
Kidney- located on either side of the lower back
Ureter- a tube that leaves each kidney, carrying urine to urinary bladder.
Urinary bladder- a sac like organ where urine is stored before being excreted
Nephron- functional units of the kidney that are small, independent processing units.
Glomerulus- a small network of capillaries encased in the upper end of neuron.
Bowman's capsule- a hollow cup-shaped structure
Filtration- passing a liquid or gas through a filter to remove waste.
Reabsorptin- the process in which liquid is taken back into a vessel
Loop of henle- a section of the nephrite tuvuke in which water is conserved and the volume of urine minimizes.
Urethra- a tube that releases urine from the body.
Immune/ lymphatic system
The immune system helps protect the body from disease. It also collects fluid last from blood vessels. After it collects the fluid it returns it to the circulatory system.
1) White blood vessels
4) Lymph nodes
5) Lymph vessels
1) Blood consist of plasma, blood cells
nutrients, hormones, wastes products, and plasma proteins.
2) Red blood cells transport oxygen to different parts of the body.
3) White blood cells fight invasions. (sicknesses) Like a virus or bacteria
- Hodgkin's lymphoma
-Plasma-90% water and 10% dissolved gases, salts, nutrients, enzymes, hormones, and waste products.
-Hemoglobin- iron-containing protein that binds to oxygen in the lungs and transports it to tissues throughout the body were he oxygen is released.
-Platelet- A fragment of cytoplasm that is released into the blood.
-Lymph-A fluid that is lost by the blood and returns it to the circulatory system.
The muscular system works with the skeletal system to produce voluntary movement. This system also helps circulate blood. Lastly, this system helps move food through the digestive system.
1) Skeletal muscle
2) Smooth muscle
3) Cardiac muscle
1) There are 3 types of muscle tissues, skeletal, smooth, and cardiac.
2) During muscle contraction, the actin filaments slide over the myosin filaments decreasing the distance between the 2 lines.
3) Exercising regularly increase muscle size.
1) Muscle cramps
Myosin- A protein found in thick filaments
Actin- A protein that makes up thin filaments
Neuromuscular junction- Point of contact between a motor neuron and a skeletal muscle system.
Acetylcnoline- A neurotransmitter
Tendon- strong connective tissue that joins muscles to bones
The Integumentary system serves as a barrier against infection and injury. This system helps to regulate body temperature. It also provides protection against ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
5) Oil Glands
1) Sweat decreases the body temperature.
2) The word epidermis comes from 2 greek words: epi meaning on the outside and derma meaning skin.
3) Hair is partly made with dead cells filled with keratin.
1) Skin cancer
2) Sun burn
This picture defines the Integumentary System
1) Epidermis- -outer layer of skin
2) Keratin- Atough, fibrous protein
3) Melatin- A dark brown pigment that helps prevent skin from uv rays
4) Dermis- lies beneath epidermis and conatins collagen fibers, blood vessels, nerve endings, and hair follicles
5) Hair follicles- Tube like pockets of skin cells that extend into the dermis
The Endocrine System controls growth and development. It also controls metabolism. This system also regulate production.
7) Ovaries (female)
8) Testes (male)
1) The Endocrine system releases hormones that affect the activites of other cells.
2) The Endocrine glands produce hormones.
3) The two main types of hormones are: steroid hormones and non-steriod hormones.
Hormone- Chemicals that travel through the blood stream and effect the activites of other cells
Target cell- Cells that have receptors for a paricular hormone
Exocrine gland- Relase their secretions through the tube-like structures called ducts
Endocrine Gland- Relase their screations directly into the blood stream
Prostaglandin- Small amounts of hormone like substances
The Reproductive System produces reproductive cells. In females this system nurtures the embryo. Also it protects the embryo. In the males this system produces, maintains and transports sperm.
3) Vas defenses
2) Fallopain tubes
1) The testes descend into the scrotum just before or after birth. (male)
2)After puberty one mature egg is released once a month. (female)
3) The menstral cycle have four phases. (female)
- follicular phase
- Luteal Phase
1) Prolapsed Uterus (women)
2) Testicular trama (men)
Puberty- The period during which adolescents reach sexual maturity and become capable of reproduction.
Scrotum- A pouch of skin containing the testicles.
Seminiferous- Producing or conveying semen.
Epidiymis- A highly convoluted duct behind the testis, along which sperm passes to the vas deferens.
Vas Deferens-The duct that conveys sperm from the testicle to the urethra.
Uretha- The duct by which urine is conveyed out of the body from the bladder, and which in male vertebrates also conveys semen.
Penis- The male genital organ carrying sperm.
Follicle- A small secretory cavity, sac, or gland, in particular.
Ovulation- During the mestration cycle when the egg gets relesed.
Fallopian Tube- Either of a pair of tubes along which eggs travel from the ovaries to the uterus.
Uterus- The organ in the lower body of a woman or female mammal where offspring are conceived and in which they gestate before birth
Vagina- The muscular tube leading from the external genitals to the cervix of the uterus in women
Menstral cycle- The process of ovulation and menstruation in women and other female primates.
1) There are about 13, 500,00 neurons in the human spinal cord.
2) Neurons do not use mitosis.
3) The base of the spinal cord has a cluster of nerves
Myocardium-The muscular tissue of the heart
Atrium- Each of the two upper cavities of the heart
Ventricle- A cavity in an organ
Pulmonary circulation- The portion of the cardiovascular system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the heart.
Systemic circulation- The part of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body
Valve- A device for controlling the passage of fluid through a pipe.
Pacemaker- An artificial device for stimulating the heart muscle
Aorta- This organs job is to supply oxygenated blood to the circulatory system
Artery- The muscular-walled tubes forming part of the circulation system by which blood (mainly that which has been oxygenated) is conveyed from the heart to all parts of the body.
Capillary- The fine branching blood vessels that form a network between the arterioles and venules.
Carrying in most cases oxygen-depleted blood toward the heart.