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Drugs and genes
Transcript of Drugs and genes
Why does this drug
for me but not for you?
Why do I have
and you don’t?
Why does someone need
to your own health and treatment?
William Bateson's term
57 Different active genes
17 Different families
metabolises the largest range of drugs of all the CYPs
tricyclic antidepressants (imipramine),
opiate analgesics (codeine),
calcium channel blockers (verapamil)
denosine triphosphate (ATP)–
--> several anticancer drugs
--> HIV type 1 protease inhibitors
--> cardiac glycosides
Drug targets (receptors) variability
coded by the
Individual genetic variaion
Interferes with nucleic acid synthesis
treat lymphoblastic leukemia, autoimmune disease, inflammatory bowel disease
cytotoxic drug with a narrow therapeutic index
bone marrow suppression
in total mentions of deaths for drugs causing adverse events.
Ranks among the
drugs associated with hospital
room visits for
can be difficult, requiring serial measurement of
) levels over the course of days or weeks.
A survey was conducted in Alexandria, Egypt (Mai, 2015)
50 random Egyptians have been questioned and 8 of which refused to participate.
--> Age: 15-75 --> Educated --> social status: variable
Objective: To measure the readiness of Egyptians to Pharmacogenomics.
Do you think that the study of genetic differences, as to relate such studies to individuals' response to medicines, is
Do you know that there´re medicines prescribed according to someone´s genes?
Would you like to participate in a genetic research, if...
your participation in the research study would increase the possibility of developing a treatment to a certain disease in the future
you knew your test results, without your name or other identifying information, would be shared with other scientists nationwide to be used furthermore in genetic researches
it involved researchers reviewing your medical records, as well as, your genetic test results, in order to explore possible links between both
you knew the results would be anonymous, i.e. that nobody- even the researchers- would know which test came from which person
Universities and medical schools
How much trust would you have in genetic research conducted by:
Do you think genetic studies and researches have a future in Egypt?
Could Egypt afford such studies and researches economically?
Third year pharmacy student
Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University
Pharmacogenomics (social, ethical and clinical dimensions)
Pharmacogenomics in clinical therapeutics