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Western Expansion

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Max Fish

on 20 January 2015

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Transcript of Western Expansion

Look at all this land!
Let's move WEST!
The Middle Ground
Let's move all the Native Americans to the
Middle Ground
-- the land between the Mississippi River & the Rocky Mountains. We don't want it and our settlers will have someone to trade with as they pass through.
What about TEXAS?
Texas is part of Mexico, but since 1821
or land agents offered Americans
land grants
to farm & ranch in Texas.
President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna had enough!
What about the rest of Mexico's land?
It looks good to us.
President Polk
There are 6 trails we could take...
Western expansion
It's too big!
We'll never manage.
Haven't you heard about our
Entrepreneurial Spirit
We have
We have
It's a
Samuel Morse just invented the telegraph.
We're building Canals & Railroads.
Erie Canal opened in 1825
As we move west the land gets drier & tougher to plow.
Good news!
John Deere invented the Steel Plow. 1837
Cyrus McCormick invented the Mechanical Reaper.
Let's Go!
Great! Until the railroads are ready, let's travel by covered wagon.
but wait...
There's still Native Americans east of the Mississippi River.
We want this land!
Black Hawk Wars
will take care of it.
Starting in Illinois and moving to Wisconsin, the Illinois militia slaughtered more than 200 Sauk & Fox people -- forcing the remaining tribes to move west of the Mississippi in 1832.
Let's sign the
Treaty of Fort Laramie,
just in case. We'll pledge to honor the new boundaries & make annual payments to the Native Americans in exchange for guarantees to not attack our settlers & to allow our government to build forts & roads.
(We'll repeatedly violate the treaty anyway.)
Butterfield Overland Trail
California Trail
Mormon Trail
Old Spanish Trail
Oregon Trail
Santa Fe Trail
go West.
Founded by
Joseph Smith
in NY State, The Church of Latter-day Saints or Mormons moved to Illinois in 1827. After Smith's murder,
Brigham Young,
the new leader of the church, moved the Mormons to the Great Salt Lake in Utah in 1847.
By 1844, about 5,000 Americans had settled in Oregon.
But wait...
Doesn't Great Britain claim
The Oregon Territory
President James Polk
President James Polk's Campaign Slogan to acquire the Oregon Territory from Great Britain up to 54° 40' latitude.
The 2 nations peacefully agree on the 49th parallel instead.
Empresario Stephen Austin issued land grants.
American had slaves, even though slavery was abolished in 1824
Americans spoke English, not Spanish.
Americans were Protestant, not Catholic.
In 1830, Mexico sealed its boarders, but American settlers kept arriving & Stephen Austin petitioned for more self rule.
But wait...
OK. Back to us.
Determined to force Texans to obey the law, Santa Anna marched 4,000 soldiers to San Antonio.
The Texans attacked first. Taking the Alamo, an abandoned mission used as a fort in 1835.
Santa Anna responded with a counter-attack.
All 187 US defenders at the Alamo died.
The next year, Santa Anna executed 300 rebels.
Remember the Alamo!!!
The Texans struck back!
Led by Sam Houston, they killed 630 and captured Santa Anna.
Who signed
The Treaty of Velasco
Sam Houston
Texas became its own country.

Sam Houston became president and invited the US to annex Texas.
Texas became the 28th State in 1845.
but wait...
The Texas Revolution
Since the Mexican Government is unstable, let's take New Mexico & California.
Forty or Fight!
In 1845, President Polk sent
John Slidell
to Mexico to purchase New Mexico & California.
Mexico refused.
Polk sent
General Zachary Taylor
to blockade the RIO GRANDE.
Polk sent
John C. Fremont
to explore California, violating Mexico's territorial claim.
The Mexican War
Mexico sent troops to the
Rio Grande
, 9 Americans were killed.
Congress declared war in 1846.
Polk ordered
Colonel Stephen Kearny
to march into New Mexico.
New Mexico fell to the US without a single shot.
Meanwhile in California...
John Fremont seized the town of Sonoma, and declared California an independent country.
The Republic of California
The US Navy & Colonel Kearny from New Mexico joined forces with Fremont.
The Mexican forces retreated.
US Troops capture Mexico City in 1847.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

is signed in 1848.
Mexico agrees to the Rio Grande for Texas' border.
Mexico cedes New Mexico & California.
The US pays $15 Million for California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, the rest of Colorado & Wyoming and most of Arizona.
AMerica invades mexico
But wait...
Most of Arizona?
Yeah, we realized 5 years later that we needed the bottom bit of Arizona for the railroads. So President Pierce paid an additional $10 Million for
The Gadsden Purchase
in 1853.
OK! Great! We're all set. The border of the lower 48 States is complete.

Now how do we get more Americans to move west?
OK. That will do it.
Full transcript