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Transcript of Western Expansion
Look at all this land!
Let's move WEST!
The Middle Ground
Let's move all the Native Americans to the
-- the land between the Mississippi River & the Rocky Mountains. We don't want it and our settlers will have someone to trade with as they pass through.
What about TEXAS?
Texas is part of Mexico, but since 1821
or land agents offered Americans
to farm & ranch in Texas.
President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna had enough!
What about the rest of Mexico's land?
It looks good to us.
There are 6 trails we could take...
It's too big!
We'll never manage.
Haven't you heard about our
Samuel Morse just invented the telegraph.
We're building Canals & Railroads.
Erie Canal opened in 1825
As we move west the land gets drier & tougher to plow.
John Deere invented the Steel Plow. 1837
Cyrus McCormick invented the Mechanical Reaper.
Great! Until the railroads are ready, let's travel by covered wagon.
There's still Native Americans east of the Mississippi River.
We want this land!
Black Hawk Wars
will take care of it.
Starting in Illinois and moving to Wisconsin, the Illinois militia slaughtered more than 200 Sauk & Fox people -- forcing the remaining tribes to move west of the Mississippi in 1832.
Let's sign the
Treaty of Fort Laramie,
just in case. We'll pledge to honor the new boundaries & make annual payments to the Native Americans in exchange for guarantees to not attack our settlers & to allow our government to build forts & roads.
(We'll repeatedly violate the treaty anyway.)
Butterfield Overland Trail
Old Spanish Trail
Santa Fe Trail
in NY State, The Church of Latter-day Saints or Mormons moved to Illinois in 1827. After Smith's murder,
the new leader of the church, moved the Mormons to the Great Salt Lake in Utah in 1847.
By 1844, about 5,000 Americans had settled in Oregon.
Doesn't Great Britain claim
The Oregon Territory
President James Polk
President James Polk's Campaign Slogan to acquire the Oregon Territory from Great Britain up to 54° 40' latitude.
The 2 nations peacefully agree on the 49th parallel instead.
Empresario Stephen Austin issued land grants.
American had slaves, even though slavery was abolished in 1824
Americans spoke English, not Spanish.
Americans were Protestant, not Catholic.
In 1830, Mexico sealed its boarders, but American settlers kept arriving & Stephen Austin petitioned for more self rule.
OK. Back to us.
Determined to force Texans to obey the law, Santa Anna marched 4,000 soldiers to San Antonio.
The Texans attacked first. Taking the Alamo, an abandoned mission used as a fort in 1835.
Santa Anna responded with a counter-attack.
All 187 US defenders at the Alamo died.
The next year, Santa Anna executed 300 rebels.
Remember the Alamo!!!
The Texans struck back!
Led by Sam Houston, they killed 630 and captured Santa Anna.
The Treaty of Velasco
Texas became its own country.
REPUBLIC OF TEXAS
Sam Houston became president and invited the US to annex Texas.
Texas became the 28th State in 1845.
The Texas Revolution
Since the Mexican Government is unstable, let's take New Mexico & California.
Forty or Fight!
In 1845, President Polk sent
to Mexico to purchase New Mexico & California.
General Zachary Taylor
to blockade the RIO GRANDE.
John C. Fremont
to explore California, violating Mexico's territorial claim.
The Mexican War
Mexico sent troops to the
, 9 Americans were killed.
Congress declared war in 1846.
Colonel Stephen Kearny
to march into New Mexico.
New Mexico fell to the US without a single shot.
Meanwhile in California...
John Fremont seized the town of Sonoma, and declared California an independent country.
The Republic of California
The US Navy & Colonel Kearny from New Mexico joined forces with Fremont.
The Mexican forces retreated.
US Troops capture Mexico City in 1847.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
is signed in 1848.
Mexico agrees to the Rio Grande for Texas' border.
Mexico cedes New Mexico & California.
The US pays $15 Million for California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, the rest of Colorado & Wyoming and most of Arizona.
AMerica invades mexico
Most of Arizona?
Yeah, we realized 5 years later that we needed the bottom bit of Arizona for the railroads. So President Pierce paid an additional $10 Million for
The Gadsden Purchase
OK! Great! We're all set. The border of the lower 48 States is complete.
Now how do we get more Americans to move west?
OK. That will do it.
DISCOVERED AT SUTTER'S MILL!