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Diagnosis of Holden Caulfield

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Jay Syz

on 29 January 2014

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Transcript of Diagnosis of Holden Caulfield

Bipolar Disorder Classifications
Signs and Symptoms of Manic Episodes
Holden Exhibits...
Future Plans and Treatment Options
Bipolar Disorder I
At least one manic episode or one mixed episode
One or more depressive episodes
Bipolar Disorder II
Episodes of predominantly major depressive symptoms
Cyclothymic Disorder
Chronic Condition
More irritability
Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specialized
Bipolar Disorder that does not meet one of the above criterias
Bipolar Disorder with Rapid Cycling
Rapid cycling between four or more episodes
Usually temporary
Exaggerated euphoria
Poor concentration
High energy and decreased need for sleep
Inflated sense of self-esteem
Rapid and excessive speech
Racing thoughts
Increased intensity in activities
Impulsivity and poor judgment
What Causes Bipolar Disorder
Some neurotransmitters, including dopamine, serotonin, epinephrin
Genes, including several chromosomes, have been linked to it
may share genetic factors with other disorders
Environmental trauma, particularly in combination with any of the above
Risk Factors
Usually between ages of 15-30
Earlier onset disorder is more likely to be associated with family history
Early onset bipolar disorder occurs more frequently in males and is associated with a more severe condition
Men have higher rates of substance abuse
Family History
family members of patients with bipolar disorder are more likely to have it or other psychological disorders
Risk Factors Applicable to Holden Caulfield
Male of 16 years old is associated with a more severe condition
Has experienced trauma
Shows signs of substance abuse
May have signs of genetic predisposition that we cannot test for
Clinical Diagnosis of Holden Caulfield
Signs and Symptoms of Depressive Episodes

Sad mood
Fatigue and loss of energy
Sleep problems
Appetite changes
Poor concentration
Guilt, pessimism, helplessness or low self esteem
Loss of interest / pleasure in life
Suicidal thoughts
By: Matthew Mandeli, Jay Syz, Tayler Tai, Gayatri Venkataraman
Bipolar Disorder based on signs, symptoms, and potential laboratory symptoms
Poor Concentration
Inflated Sense of Self-Esteem
Rapid and Excessive Speech
Racing Thoughts
Increased Intensity in Activities
Impulsivity and Poor Judgement
Combination of Medication and Therapy
Mood Stabilizing Medication
Anticonvulsants (Valproic Acid)
Family-Focused Therapy
Diagnosis of Holden Caulfield

Bipolar Disorder. (2008). NIMH RSS. Retrieved January 8, 2014, from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/

Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents. (2003). In The National Institute of Mental
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Harms, R. W. (2012). Bipolar Disorder Causes. In Mayo Clinic. Retrieved
January 13, 2014, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/ bipolar-disorder/basics/causes/con-20027544

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January 9, 2014, from http://umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/bipolar-disorder

Smith, M., Segal, J. (2013). Bipolar Disorder Signs & Symptoms. Helguide. Retrieved
December 19, 2013, from http://www.helpguide.org/mental/bipolar_disorder_ symptoms_ treatment.htm
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