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Questionnaires and Interviews
Transcript of Questionnaires and Interviews
Pedro Rieger Questionnaires and Interviews Prior notification of questions - “Interviewees may be more relaxed if they know what questions they are going to be asked.”
- Ask for permission to record the interview, if this is the case.
- “The interviewee may wish to check your transcript.” Commentary - numerical, ranking, verbal, yes/no, open-ended Recording Interview Data - Simple Recall
- Note Taking
- Taping (audio / video) Wallace Subject of matter Various forms and kinds of data, such as:
- facts, personal perspectives;
- experiences, anecdotes;
- opinions, references;
- ideas. OUTLINE Wallace (1998), Questionnaires and Interviews Overview
- research techniques that involve asking people;
- advantages and disadvantages;
- characteristics in common;
- design and implementation. ‘both questionnaires and interviews are usually used in a complementary fashion’ Comparing... Use of questionnaires
and Interviews - tap into ideas, knowledge and opinions;
- by asking questions;
- recordable answers for further analysis. Problematic aspects 1 – subjectivity
2 – nature of sample
3 – intrusiveness - highly structured;
- carefully written;
- save time. - are flexible;
- if the respondent have troubles with questions, they can be explained. Questionnaires Interviews Concerns the implementation of both questionnaires and interviews and the representative level of the investigated group in relation to the whole group. Sampling... - check whether they will work as expected. Piloting 1 - were the instructions clear and easy to follow?
2 - were the questions clear?
3 - were you able to answer all the questions?
4 - did you find any of the questions: embarrassing, irrelevant, patronizing, initiating?
5 - how long questions took to be completed?
6 - ask for comments and suggestions from respondents. Questions of pilot stage: Questionnaire preparation 1 – Purpose (Why am I doing this?)
2 – Handling the data
3 – Practical details
4 – Anonymity Questionnaire design - clarity;
- closed and open questions. Relevance - unnecessary and/or irrelevant questions. User-friendliness Questionnaires should not be:
- too long
- intrusive Interviews - Structured interviews;
- Unstructured interviews;
- Semi-structured interviews. The time factor - confusing
- perplexing - One-to-one
- Group interview (structured discussion) Individual and group interviews Conduct of the interview - Begin and finish on time;
- The atmosphere should be friendly and relaxed;
- Start off with easy lead-in questions in order to break the ice. - To interview using different kinds of stimulus such as:
Video / Tape / Texts / Tasks
- To interview using different kinds of focus such as:
Teacher interviewing student: Use a stimulus and stop every now and then to check students’reactions during a discussion.
Teacher interviewing teacher: Give the complete stimulus and then check reactions making questions.
Teacher interviewing student: Give a task to the student, but ask questions before, during and after the task in order to collect data in all the stages. Interviews variety of focus Example interview Schedule Interview Schedule
TOPIC: Student Motivation (EFL)
1- How long have you been studying English?
2- Why did you choose to study English?
3- How would you describe your motivation?
HIGH – AVERAGE – LOW
Would you say that your motivation has changed at all during your period of study?
Can you suggest anything to… ?
So on… Personal Review - Initial ideas;
- If you have opportunity, interview someone;
- If possible, record;
- Play it back and evaluated with questions as:
Did I get the information I wanted? Was it interesting? Did communication break down at any point? Would I do anything differently now? ... Summary Two techniques:
- From questionnaires we can work with a large number of people and do bigger comparisons.
- From interviews we can investigate people’s views, attitudes, experiences etc., deeply. Example 1 (Please tick ( ) the appropriate box)
How many years have you been studying English?
0-3 4-6 7-10 more than 10 Example 2 Why did you decide to learn English rather than some other foreign language? (If you have several reasons, pick the most important.)
_______________________________________________________________ (iii) Other (please specify)
A lot Average Not much None - talk to the interviewees (ethics);
- "for each hour of interviewing, a further three should be allowed for preparation and summary";
- how much interviewing, who are the key people, how you are going to handle other things, so on. Thank you! Beginner learners/very young:
- mother tongue Pedro:
Uses of questionnaires and interviews
Subject-matter of questionnaires and interviews
Problematics aspects of using questionnaires and interviews
Comparing questionnaires and interviews as investigative techniques
Questionnaire preparation Luene:
The time factor Halessa:
Recording interview data
Individual and group interviews
Prior notification of questions
Conduct of the interview
Interviews: variety of focus
Personal Review - Summary