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Homosexuals and Adoption

A discussion of the ethics of adoption into families with gay parents.
by

Michael Marzeotti

on 18 April 2015

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Transcript of Homosexuals and Adoption

Children growing up in same-sex parental households do not necessarily have differences in self-esteem, gender identity, or emotional problems from children growing up in heterosexual parent homes. Researchers looked at information gleaned from 15 studies on more than 500 children, evaluating possible stigma, teasing and social isolation, adjustment and self-esteem issues, sexual orientation, and strengths. Studies from 1981 to 1994, including 260 children reared by either heterosexual mothers or same-sex mothers after divorce, found no differences in these categories.
In order to maximize utility among the majority of children is foster care is would be immoral to deem gay adoption illegal. This is based on the principle that the majority of children want and deserve the ability to live in a loving family.
Gay adoption would also maximize utility among tax payers by getting the largest amount of children out of government funded programs.
Lack of nurture from a parent figure at a young age can lead to a number of psychological disorders in later years such as depression.

Tylor Richardson
Silvana Rodrigues
Janete Andrade
Bolivar Rubiano
Caitlan Davis

Homosexual Parenting
Adoption:
The couple simply adopts a child, depending on the laws instituted in their place of residence.

Surrogacy:
One of the partners genetic material is used with the help of a third party volunteer to conceive and give birth to a child.
How would a gay couple acquire children?
Gay adoption is the adoption of a child by two same sex parents.
It is very controversial because many believe that every child has the right to a mother and a father.
Many also believe that the child would be affected by the sexual orientation of his parents.
It is also worried that a child of same sex parents will be bullied in school for being different, causing emotional damage.
What is Gay Adoption?
Single Adoption- an unmarried person adopts a child

Joint Adoption- a married or unmarried gay couple petitions to adopt a child

Second Parent Adoption-
One unmarried partner adopts the other partner’s biological child
-Or-
One parents adopts as a single and then the second parent petitions to adopt the child and share full parental responsibilities
Different Types of Adoption
Actor Neil Patrick Harris and his fiance David Burtka announced that they were expecting twins in 2010. They are now the proud parents of a happy healthy set of fraternal twins.
Working Well...
- Gay parents may have experienced bias and prejudice themselves, so they may be better able to relate to children with troubled pasts and emotional difficulties.
- Gay adoption increases the pool of couples who are able to adopt, which can move more children out of the child welfare system into a stable family. This is a pro not only for the child, but it also reduces the financial burden to taxpayers.
- Many gay couples, certainly those offering themselves as adoptive parents, form relationships that are more stable than many heterosexual marriages, thus giving adopted children a secure emotional home.
- In an era when many children are raised by single parents, with proven disadvantages such as lower educational achievements and poor behavior, gay couples offer adopted children two full-time parents.
- There is a shortage of adoptive parents. A ‘family’, whether gay or straight, is better than the foster-care system.
- To grow up to be well-balanced adults, children need role models of both sexes. Boys without fathers under-achieve, especially since there are now fewer male teachers in primary schools.
- We are a ‘Christian’ country, even if few go to church, our values remain based on Christian teaching and that states that a family should consist of both a heterosexual mother and a father figure.
Benefits
Benefits Cont.
Disadvantages
- Children raised by gay parents are offered only one partnership model and therefore (some argue) more likely to be gay.
- Children who are raised by homosexual parents will be subject to unfair harassment and are more likely to be rejected by peers for being different.
Disadvantages Cont.
- Children whose parents are of gay sexual orientation may have more sensitivity for social differences and feel less constrained by gender-based stereotypes.
Not Working Well...
Decisions regarding parental rights are:

made on a case-by-case basis
ultimately the decision of the judge





Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Maine, Massachusetts, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont and Washington.
Deeming gay adoption illegal would be immoral under Kant’s theory if the couple is adopting because the right thing to do is putting the child in a stable home, and treating the child as an end and not a means.
When considering Universal Law all reasonable people would accept that it is moral to allow all competent adults (by the standard of their society) to opportunity to become parents and take children out of the Child Welfare System.
To respect a human’s autonomy you must give them the opportunity to choose which path they wan to pursue when referring to adoption.
Theories
KANTS THEORY
Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, D.C., Illinois, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and Vermont

Still, people have successfully done second parent adoptions in the following states as well:

Alabama, Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Iowa, Louisiana, Maryland, Minnesota, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oregon, Rhode Island, Texas, and Washington
Ambiguous States
States that Allow Second Parent Adoption by Law
UTILITARIANISM
Obstacles to Equal Treatment
University of California sociologists recently re-examined data from 21 studies on gay parenting dating back to 1980.The new study by two University of Southern California sociologists says children with lesbian or gay parents show more empathy for social diversity, are less confined by gender stereotypes, and are probably more likely to explore homosexual activity themselves.According to the American Sociological Review, the emotional health of the two sets of children is essentially the same. This debasing the the criticism/stereotype that homosexual parents are unfit role models.
Same-sex couples are prohibited from adopting in Mississippi and Utah.

Michigan State courts have ruled that unmarried individuals may not jointly petition to adopt.

State courts have ruled that second-parent adoptions are not available under current law in Kentucky, Nebraska and Ohio.
On April 7, 2011: Arkansas Supreme Court

On September 22, 2010: Florida’s Third District Court of Appeals
Court Cases
Childhood Sexual Experiences
PROS
-
While there are different theories about how the sexual orientation develops, experts in the human sexuality field do not believe that premature sexual experiences play a significant role in late adolescent or adult sexual orientation.
CONS
-

Having to grow up in a homosexually driven
house hold can be confusing and difficult. Children can be ridiculed in school and have views that they don't believe in forced onto them
Current Policies
NEGATIVE NATURAL RIGHTS
Are kids more likely to be homosexual when raised by them?
YES
-Data on the long-term outcomes of children placed in homosexual households is sparse and gives reason for concern. This research has revealed that children reared in homosexual households are more likely to experience sexual confusion, engage in risky sexual experimentation, and later adopt a homosexual identity.
Negative natural rights would deem gay adoption as legal when taking the U.S. Constitution into consideration. As U.S citizens we are entitled to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, making gay adoption illegal could potentially take that away from children seeking happiness in a healthy, and stable home as well as taking the right to provide this away from potential parents regardless of gender. As long as all a persons rights are intact people should not have a hand in deciding who adopts whom.
An experiment conducted by social scientist, Mark Regnerus, found that arrest, drug experimentation, and unemployment rates are higher among adults who were raised by gay parents.
Also, 14% of children with gay parents have spent time in foster care, as opposed to children with heterosexual parents.
NO
-There is no scientific basis for concluding that lesbian mothers or gay fathers are unfit parents on the basis of their sexual orientation. As the social visibility and legal status of lesbian and gay parents has increased. concerns about the influence of lesbian and gay parents on children have been often voiced. Results of social science research have failed to confirm these concerns about children of lesbian and gay parents.
References
Bass, S., Shields, M., Behrman, R. (2004, January 01). Children, Families, and Foster Care: Analysis and Recommendations. Future of Children, (1), 4, Retrieved from http://elibrary.bigchalk.com

Bower, L., & Klecka, C. (2009). (Re)Considering Normal: Queering Social Norms for Parents and Teachers. Teaching Education, 20(4), 357-373. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Caldwell, John (2003, June 10). Little victories for gay adoption. Advocate, The, 38, Retrieved from http://elibrary.bigchalk.com

Curtis, p. (1999, April 6th). Overview of lesbian and gay parenting, adoption and foster care. American Civil Liberties Union, Retrieved from ACLU.org

Kosciw, J. G., Diaz, E. M., & Gay, L. Y. (2008). Involved, Invisible, Ignored: The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Parents and Their Children in Our Nation's K-12 Schools. Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Stone, Andrea. (2006, February 20). Both sides on gay adoption cite concern for children. USA Today, Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/news
.
In Favor of Same-Sex Adoption: Overturning Laws that Prohibit Same-Sex Adoption
Against Same-Sex Adoption
Adar v. Smith
States Where Same-Sex Couples can Jointly Petition to Adopt Statewide:
Discussion Generator
Do you support same sex adoption? and why?
If you were raised by same sex parents do you think you would have turned out the same?
Should it be federally enforced that same sex couples are allowed to adopt? Why or why not?
Full transcript