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Struggle for hegemony
Transcript of Struggle for hegemony
Napoleon attempted to build an empire in Europe under France. Between 1805 and 1810 he managed to control a large portion of Western Europe after several victorious campaigns.
The birth of the modern world (1871-1914)
In the period between 1870 and 1914, the foundations of today's world were established.
Around 1870 a new form of colonial expansion took place, which was called
After the Napoleon's defeat, the victorious countries (Great Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia) tried to restore absolutism and to rebuild the map of Europe at the Congress of Vienna.
Struggle for hegemony
The only country that stood against Napoleon was Great Britain, which defeated the French navy at Trafalgar (1805) and resisted the continental blockade (a ban on trading with Great Britain).
However, French domination in the occupied countries provoked nationalist movements that fought against the foreign invasion.
During the first half of the 19th Century a succession of liberal revolutions swept through the countries of Europe.
Cortes de Cádiz (1812). Primera Constitución española.
Primera Constitución Portuguesa (1822)
Independencia y primera Constitución Griega (1822)
Independencia y Constitución Bélgica (1831)
French Liberal Revolution (1830)
Radical French Revolution (1848):
middle classes and proletariat
Last King of France
Second Reich, Bismarck (1871)
Italian unification (1871): Roma became the capital city
Kingdom of Italy (1861)
The rise of a consumer society resulted in greater social inequalities. The living standards of the upper and middle classes improved, while the working class suffered the effects of the economic crisis.
Europe experienced a period of tense international relations due to rivalries between European countries, particularly Germany and France.
Spain became a second-class power after it lost its remaining colonies in 1898.
The industrial countries of Europe started producing manufactured goods in enormous quantities. At the same time, they began colonising countries and region (raw materials).
Colonialism sought to control the economic resources of the colonized territories.
on the other hand aimed to impose ideological domination on the colonized territories as well as exploiting them economically.
The causes of imperialism
Political and strategic
In order to balance and maintain their power on the geopolitical map of the world, as well as to control the commercial routes.
Colonies were also an attractive destination for European emigrants. Machines were replacing many workers in factories and it was necessary to reduced unemployment rates. So some governments encouraged emigration to reduce social conflict.
the Second Industrial Revolution created a demand for raw materials and new markets The development of capitalism also stimulated investment in new territories.
Darwin's theory of evolution was adapted to proclaim the superiority of the white race (so called
). Western civilization undertook the mission of civilizing the rest of the world.
Constitutional union of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdoom of Hungary: Austro-Hungarian Compromisse (1867)
The Great War
The causes of the war
During the period of uneasy peace in Europe at the end of the 19th century, there had been various sources of tension:
France wanted to recover the region of Alsace-Lorraine, which it had lost to the German Empire in 1871.
Between 1878 and 1908, the Austro-Hungarian Empire occupied and then annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina. This led to nationalist protest on the part of Serbian living in Bosnia. It also angered Russia, Serbia's traditional ally.
France vs. Germany
Russia Empire and Serbia vs. Austro-Hungarian Empire
Great Britain vs. Germany
Britain and Germany became involved in a
naval arms race
. Both countries built a range of powerful new battleships known as dreadnoughts. The militarism created a climate of war.
Colonial and economic conflicts
Industrialised European countries expanded their empires and competed for control of colonies, especially in North Africa.
Nationalist conflicts existed in the larger empires, where some minorities claimed independence.; this was the case of the Balkans where different national identities were fighting against the oppression of the Austrian and Turkish empire.
Indian infantrymen training for receiving a gas attack, 1915
The event that started the war was the murder in Sarajevo (Bosnia) of the Ausro-Hungarian heir to the throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, by a Serbian nationalist student (June 1914).
Sides and Battle Fronts
Aft the Austro-Hungarian Empire had declared war on Serbia, other European countries chose sides, based on their pre-existing alliance and own national interest.
The fronts were formed by long lines of trenches protected by machine guns and barbed wire.
New allies and Russian Revolution
In 1917 the United States entered the war in support of the Allies, while the Russian Empire had to withdraw from the battlefield as a result of the Russian Revolution.
As a consequence, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, and Russia entered the conflict to help Serbia. This started the complicated system of alliances that had been agreed before the war.
The starting point
+ Ottoman Empire
The armistice and the Treaty of Versailles
Global conflict: http://www.theatlantic.com/static/infocus/wwi/global/
After the terrorist attack, Vienna presented the Serbs with an
that gave them no choice but:
acknowledge Austrian hegemony
or submit to a war of conquest
In such confrontation Russia felt bound to support Serbia...
In order to to stop Austrian expansion
The Russian Empire
to confront Russia
War with Russia would certainly involve war with its ally:
Since the beginning of the century Germany had been perfecting a plan for two-front war:
The Schlieffen Plan
By which German armies would initially stand on the defensive against Russia and destroy the French armies by a huge encircling movement through neutral Belgium.
This involved both an act of unprovoked aggression against France and the invasion of a small country whose neutrality had been guaranteed by
The Austro-Hungary Empire presented an
to the Serbs follow by Austria-Hungary’s
(On July 28)
On the afternoon of July 31, Germany declared “imminent danger of war” and delivered an
to Russia to halt mobilization within twelve hours. When no response was received by the afternoon of August 1,
German troops began occupying neutral
as a preamble to the invasion on Belgium and northern France. (On August, 2)
The French implored their reluctant British allies to fulfill their informal commitment to help defend France.
The Domino Effect
The Russian and Austro-Hungarian
on the evening of July 30
to Germany, demanding that she stop the invasion of Belgium immediately
For the first time in history the entire economy of each of the countries involved in the conflict focused on the war effort:
the invention and production of weapons became a priority
women started working to replace the men that were fighting
he civil population suffered directly from air raids
After an attack on all fronts by the Allies, the Central Powers started to surrender. Finally, Germany was alone and without supplies so the emperor Wilhelm II had to abdicate and the government of the new republic signed the
The war ended on 11 November 1918 (the ceasefire came into effect "on the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month").
In 1918 the American president Woodrow Wilson issued his Fourteen Points, a document that contained the foundations for future peace
The Paris Conference (1919)
The victorious countries agreed on the terms for the defeated countries: costly economic sanctions, territorial concessions and the reduction of their armies.
The Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty was especially hard on Germany. Germany was made responsible for the war.
It had to abandon all its colones.
Return Alsace and Lorraine to France.
Reduce its army
Pay costly war reparations.
This treaty humiliate Germany and created a desire for revenge
Russia: from absolutism to revolution
At the beginning of the 20th century Russia was a large empire governed by a Tsar of the Romanov dinasty. It was a war of social discontent for the middle and working class.
Re-mapping Europe and Middle East
The Tsarist Empire
In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Russia was an empire with the following characteristics:
It was an
ruled by the tsar. Civil rights were not recognised and
the economy was
: a wealthy minority owned most of the agricultural land, which was worked by peasant majority.
a capitalist economy could not develop because both
were smaller and less significant than in the other European countries.
At the beginning of the 20th century...
In 1898, the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party was formed. Its aim was to establish a Socialist state based on the principles of
The abolition of private property
(Equality vs. Freedom)
Theory of History: materialism
The dictatorship of the proletariat
the RSDLP divided into two separate factions
('minority') argued that gradual reforms could achieve...
('majority') argued for an immediate revolution to remove the tsar from power and establish...
a Socialist estate
In 1905, there were protest against the tsar's absolutist regime. Workers and soldiers formed a
), went on strike and protest.
The russian revolution
Russia's participation in the
caused more discontent and protests because Russian soldiers did not have enought food or military equipment. As well as the enormous number of casualties, the
Tsar Nicholas II was deposed
At first, the
formed a provisional government and made
political parties legal
. Meanwhile, Lenin's Bolsheviks established an
alternative government based on the soviets
In october 1917 the
seized control of the government and
became the new leader of Russia.
Consecuences of the October Revolution (1917)
February Revolution 1917
Once the Bolsheviks took over the government one of the his first actions was to sign the
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
with the German Empire
This allowed Russia
from an unpopular war, but in return the Bolsheviks agreed to give a large amount of land and resources to Germany
After taking power, the Bolsheviks began persecuting their opponents. In july 1918,
killed the Tsar and his family
. In response, a
broke out between the White Russians (counter-revolutionaries) and the
The Red Army eventually won the civil war. In 1922, Lenin established the
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(USSR). He also approved a
In the USSR, Karl Marx's idea of
dictatorship of the proletariat
was put into practice.
: Communist Party of the Soviet Union represented the interests of the workers.
The party also controlled
(councils), which directed all state institution
Under this Communist system, the state also
controlled the means of production
, such as
, as well as