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Struggle for hegemony

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juan santiago

on 2 March 2017

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Transcript of Struggle for hegemony

The Napoleonic empire (1805-1815)
Napoleon attempted to build an empire in Europe under France. Between 1805 and 1810 he managed to control a large portion of Western Europe after several victorious campaigns.
The birth of the modern world (1871-1914)
In the period between 1870 and 1914, the foundations of today's world were established.
Imperialism
Around 1870 a new form of colonial expansion took place, which was called
imperialism
.
The Restoration
After the Napoleon's defeat, the victorious countries (Great Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia) tried to restore absolutism and to rebuild the map of Europe at the Congress of Vienna.
Nations
Struggle for hegemony
The only country that stood against Napoleon was Great Britain, which defeated the French navy at Trafalgar (1805) and resisted the continental blockade (a ban on trading with Great Britain).
However, French domination in the occupied countries provoked nationalist movements that fought against the foreign invasion.
During the first half of the 19th Century a succession of liberal revolutions swept through the countries of Europe.
Cortes de Cádiz (1812). Primera Constitución española.
Primera Constitución Portuguesa (1822)
Independencia y primera Constitución Griega (1822)
Independencia y Constitución Bélgica (1831)
French Liberal Revolution (1830)
Radical French Revolution (1848):
middle classes and proletariat
Second Republic
Last King of France
Second Reich, Bismarck (1871)
Italian unification (1871): Roma became the capital city
Kingdom of Italy (1861)
The rise of a consumer society resulted in greater social inequalities. The living standards of the upper and middle classes improved, while the working class suffered the effects of the economic crisis.
Europe experienced a period of tense international relations due to rivalries between European countries, particularly Germany and France.
Spain became a second-class power after it lost its remaining colonies in 1898.
The industrial countries of Europe started producing manufactured goods in enormous quantities. At the same time, they began colonising countries and region (raw materials).
Colonialism sought to control the economic resources of the colonized territories.
Imperialism
on the other hand aimed to impose ideological domination on the colonized territories as well as exploiting them economically.
The causes of imperialism
Political and strategic
In order to balance and maintain their power on the geopolitical map of the world, as well as to control the commercial routes.
Demographic
Colonies were also an attractive destination for European emigrants. Machines were replacing many workers in factories and it was necessary to reduced unemployment rates. So some governments encouraged emigration to reduce social conflict.
Economic
the Second Industrial Revolution created a demand for raw materials and new markets The development of capitalism also stimulated investment in new territories.
Ideological
Darwin's theory of evolution was adapted to proclaim the superiority of the white race (so called
social darwinism
). Western civilization undertook the mission of civilizing the rest of the world.
Constitutional union of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdoom of Hungary: Austro-Hungarian Compromisse (1867)
The Great War
The causes of the war
During the period of uneasy peace in Europe at the end of the 19th century, there had been various sources of tension:
France wanted to recover the region of Alsace-Lorraine, which it had lost to the German Empire in 1871.
Between 1878 and 1908, the Austro-Hungarian Empire occupied and then annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina. This led to nationalist protest on the part of Serbian living in Bosnia. It also angered Russia, Serbia's traditional ally.
France vs. Germany
Russia Empire and Serbia vs. Austro-Hungarian Empire
Great Britain vs. Germany
Britain and Germany became involved in a
naval arms race
. Both countries built a range of powerful new battleships known as dreadnoughts. The militarism created a climate of war.
Colonial and economic conflicts
Industrialised European countries expanded their empires and competed for control of colonies, especially in North Africa.
Nationalist conflicts existed in the larger empires, where some minorities claimed independence.; this was the case of the Balkans where different national identities were fighting against the oppression of the Austrian and Turkish empire.
http://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/race-racism-and-military-strategy
Indian infantrymen training for receiving a gas attack, 1915
The War
1914
1915
1918
1917
1914
The event that started the war was the murder in Sarajevo (Bosnia) of the Ausro-Hungarian heir to the throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, by a Serbian nationalist student (June 1914).
Sides and Battle Fronts
Aft the Austro-Hungarian Empire had declared war on Serbia, other European countries chose sides, based on their pre-existing alliance and own national interest.
Trench warfare
The fronts were formed by long lines of trenches protected by machine guns and barbed wire.
New allies and Russian Revolution
In 1917 the United States entered the war in support of the Allies, while the Russian Empire had to withdraw from the battlefield as a result of the Russian Revolution.
Total Warfare
As a consequence, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, and Russia entered the conflict to help Serbia. This started the complicated system of alliances that had been agreed before the war.
The starting point
Vs.
+ Ottoman Empire
1915
The armistice and the Treaty of Versailles
Global conflict: http://www.theatlantic.com/static/infocus/wwi/global/
After the terrorist attack, Vienna presented the Serbs with an
ultimatum
that gave them no choice but:

to

acknowledge Austrian hegemony
or submit to a war of conquest
.
In such confrontation Russia felt bound to support Serbia...
In order to to stop Austrian expansion
The Russian Empire
supported Serbia.

Austria-Hungary needed
German support
to confront Russia
War with Russia would certainly involve war with its ally:
France
.
Since the beginning of the century Germany had been perfecting a plan for two-front war:
The Schlieffen Plan
.
By which German armies would initially stand on the defensive against Russia and destroy the French armies by a huge encircling movement through neutral Belgium.
This involved both an act of unprovoked aggression against France and the invasion of a small country whose neutrality had been guaranteed by
Britain
.
The Austro-Hungary Empire presented an
ulimatum
to the Serbs follow by Austria-Hungary’s
declaration

of war
on Serbia
(On July 28)
On the afternoon of July 31, Germany declared “imminent danger of war” and delivered an
ultimatum
to Russia to halt mobilization within twelve hours. When no response was received by the afternoon of August 1,
Germany

declared war

on Russia
.
German troops began occupying neutral
Luxembourg
as a preamble to the invasion on Belgium and northern France. (On August, 2)
The French implored their reluctant British allies to fulfill their informal commitment to help defend France.
The Domino Effect
The Russian and Austro-Hungarian
general

mobilizations
on the evening of July 30
Great Britain
ultimatum
to Germany, demanding that she stop the invasion of Belgium immediately
For the first time in history the entire economy of each of the countries involved in the conflict focused on the war effort:
the invention and production of weapons became a priority
women started working to replace the men that were fighting
he civil population suffered directly from air raids
After an attack on all fronts by the Allies, the Central Powers started to surrender. Finally, Germany was alone and without supplies so the emperor Wilhelm II had to abdicate and the government of the new republic signed the
armistice
(1918).
The war ended on 11 November 1918 (the ceasefire came into effect "on the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month").
USA rules
In 1918 the American president Woodrow Wilson issued his Fourteen Points, a document that contained the foundations for future peace
The Paris Conference (1919)
The victorious countries agreed on the terms for the defeated countries: costly economic sanctions, territorial concessions and the reduction of their armies.
The Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty was especially hard on Germany. Germany was made responsible for the war.
It had to abandon all its colones.
Return Alsace and Lorraine to France.
Reduce its army
Pay costly war reparations.
This treaty humiliate Germany and created a desire for revenge
Russia: from absolutism to revolution
At the beginning of the 20th century Russia was a large empire governed by a Tsar of the Romanov dinasty. It was a war of social discontent for the middle and working class.
Re-mapping Europe and Middle East
The Tsarist Empire
In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Russia was an empire with the following characteristics:
It was an
absolute monarchy
ruled by the tsar. Civil rights were not recognised and
political parties
faced represion.
the economy was
semi-feudal
: a wealthy minority owned most of the agricultural land, which was worked by peasant majority.
a capitalist economy could not develop because both
bourgeoisie
and the
working class
were smaller and less significant than in the other European countries.
At the beginning of the 20th century...
In 1898, the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party was formed. Its aim was to establish a Socialist state based on the principles of
Marxist ideology
.
The abolition of private property
(Equality vs. Freedom)
Class Struggle
Theory of History: materialism
The dictatorship of the proletariat
In
1903
the RSDLP divided into two separate factions
The
Mensheviks
('minority') argued that gradual reforms could achieve...
The
Bolsheviks
('majority') argued for an immediate revolution to remove the tsar from power and establish...
a Socialist estate
In 1905, there were protest against the tsar's absolutist regime. Workers and soldiers formed a
revolutionary council
('
soviet'
), went on strike and protest.
The russian revolution
Russia's participation in the
WWI
caused more discontent and protests because Russian soldiers did not have enought food or military equipment. As well as the enormous number of casualties, the
Tsar Nicholas II was deposed
and a
Republic
was imposed.
At first, the
Mensheviks
formed a provisional government and made
political parties legal
. Meanwhile, Lenin's Bolsheviks established an
alternative government based on the soviets
.
In october 1917 the
Bolshevisks
seized control of the government and
Lenin
became the new leader of Russia.
Consecuences of the October Revolution (1917)
February Revolution 1917
Once the Bolsheviks took over the government one of the his first actions was to sign the
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
with the German Empire
This allowed Russia
to withdraw
from an unpopular war, but in return the Bolsheviks agreed to give a large amount of land and resources to Germany
After taking power, the Bolsheviks began persecuting their opponents. In july 1918,
they

killed the Tsar and his family
. In response, a
civil war
broke out between the White Russians (counter-revolutionaries) and the
Red Army
(Bolsheviks forces)
The Red Army eventually won the civil war. In 1922, Lenin established the
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(USSR). He also approved a
new constitution
based on
Communist
principles.
In the USSR, Karl Marx's idea of
dictatorship of the proletariat
was put into practice.
A
single party
: Communist Party of the Soviet Union represented the interests of the workers.
The party also controlled
the soviets
(councils), which directed all state institution
Under this Communist system, the state also
controlled the means of production
, such as
factories
and
energy sources
, as well as
trade
and
finance
.
Full transcript