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The outstanding lesson

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Barry Evans

on 24 February 2015

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Transcript of The outstanding lesson

Learning Styles
Learning Objectives and Outcomes
Data Tracking
Independent Learners
The outstanding lesson
Marking & Feedforward
How to use this guide
Click on the frame of the an aspect of lesson planning that you are interested in to read more
Alternatively you may wish to watch the whole presentation
Marking &
Feed forward
Learning obj and outcomes
Data tracking
To start your journey click on the home button at the end of the arrow
Building Learning Power
Assessment for Learning
Before any student can really engage in the process of learning they must be in an environment which allows education to take place. No matter how outstanding the resources and activities are - poor behaviour can ruin any lesson. So here are some tips...
Check out this video and more on Youtube!
For more behaviour management tips follow these links:
Top 10 Practical Advice:

Research based:

What are other schools like:
Building Learning Power is all about
giving students the tools to tackle any
situation or challenge with confidence.
In order to succeed, we promote the
skills of: Responsibility, Reciprocity,
Resilience, Resourcefulness and
For a summary of
BLP from Professor
Guy Claxton who
presents the key
concepts of his theory
For more information and research on BLP,
follow these links:



A TED Talk by Ken Robinson on
nurturing learning for students
The students you teach must make progress. This progress needs to be evident both throughout individual lessons and over a sustained period of time.

Therefore you need strategies to ensure students are making progress and strategies to check they are making progress.

Strategies for proving progress during a lesson:
Quick quiz
Exit cards
ABCD choice cards
Mini whiteboards
Multiple right answers
Red/Green disk
Odd one out
Spot the mistake

Using technology to enhance the teaching and learning experience. Providing resources that visually and auditory support the learning or improve the quality of assessment for all.

1) Understand why you are using technology? Who will it support in the classroom; staff or student?
2) Do you feel confident with the technology? Will the students feel confident with the technology?
3) Will there be sufficient devices for all students?
4) Do you have a backup plan if the technology fails?


1) An app that easily manages the collation and analysis of student data.


2) Socrative – an app that allows interaction.


3) Prezi

4) Dropbox

5) Google docs

What is questioning?
Questioning in the classroom can take many forms: oral questioning, peer questioning and written questioning.
Questioning is used by the teacher to encourage engagement, assess prior knowledge/progress in new knowledge, and as a gateway to new learning.

Types of Questioning

Questions are often classified as either being open or closed.

Closed questioning is when the question has a limited response, often with a one word answer – the response is usually right or wrong. Eg How do you add two fractions together? When did the First World War end? Closed questioning is an effective way to check a pupil’s prior knowledge or progress made.
Open questions are questions that have multiple responses and can provoke a debate. Eg What were the causes of the First World War? Can you write down some fractions that add to give 3/5?

Open questioning encourages pupils to think more deeply and is good for developing the learning and for providing differentiation.
An outstanding lesson is likely to contain a variety of closed and open questions. A lesson that contains on repetitive questions of a similar level of difficulty is unlikely to be graded as ‘Good’. In a ‘Good/Outstanding’ lesson the questions will be designed in such a way that pupils need to apply their skills, maybe by working backwards, or by transferring the skills to a new situation.

Questioning and Differentiation

Questioning is very closely linked to differentiation.

Differentiation in questioning might be achieved by asking different students different questions or be asking deeper questions based on Bloom’s taxonomy.

In Bloom’s taxonomy the learning process is broken into different stages, with the most basic level of learning at the bottom, progressing to the most accomplished level of learning at the top. The aim is to lead pupils to produce work at the higher levels by developing their skills in the lower tiers.

Example of Questioning using Bloom’s taxonomy:

- What is an average, what are the mean mode and median?

- Find the mean mode and median of this set of numbers?

- Decide which average is best for each situation and calculate it.

- Compare these two sets of data

- David was asked to compare two data sets, here is his work, comment on his results and choices.

- Pose a question and investigate it using averages.
Good oral questioning strategies

Try and get as responses from as many pupils as possible in a single lesson. Good questioning requires teachers to ‘break out’ of what may people see as the staple classroom diet of questioning, where the teacher asks a question a pupil replies and the teacher praises (This technique is sometimes referred to as the IRE - initiation/response/evaluation - technique).

There are a number of ways this can be achieved.


Good oral questioning strategies

Use the Pose, Pause, Pounce, Bounce technique. The teacher poses a question, pauses for all pupils to consider the answer, then selects a student (no hands required) and then uses a second student to check respond to the first student’s idea.

Play devil’s advocate think Chris Tarrant on Who wants to be a Millionaire, but more extreme – Is that you final answer? “No one has suggested that before”, “Are you really sure?”

Don’t give the game away – take several answers from the same question or bounce an answer around the room so that there is inter-pupil exchanges. Get a pupil to answer a question and another pupil to check decide if they are right.

Play ‘Around the World’

Use the Magic Hat or lollipop sticks idea to ensure that as many students as possible respond to questions in the room. Get pupils to nominate another person to answer a question after they have answered one themselves.

When checking for answers to quick-fire routine questions, scan a line in the classroom and each pupil gives a response to the question. If they haven’t done the question yet get them to work it out!

Use ‘follow me’ cards this works better with a smaller group and each pupil can have more than 1 card

Using mini-white boards for quick fire question assessment. This works well as engagement is explicit and progress is made explicit. A skilled sequence of questions can build on Blooms’ taxonomy to help introduce new concepts promoting discussion and helping the pupils to lead the learning.

Use data to know your students

A wealth of knowledge that informs teaching practice to fulfil potential with every student. Aids planning by allowing you to reflect on the ability and learning styles of the students.

What needs to be done?
1) Acquire and understand prior attainment and CAT4 data.

2) Create a seating plan that is annotated with current attainment, target, EAL, FSM, PP, SEN and AGT. Revised throughout the year to maximise student attainment through peer support or collaboration.

3) Alert book entries listed and planning to differentiate for the varying learner needs.

4) Differentiate the work delivered in the classroom and set targeted homework.

5) Knowledge of interventions that the students are involved in or need to be involved in.


1) An app that easily manages the collation and analysis of student data. http://www.hinchingbrookeschool.co.uk/Subject%20World/Support%20Page.html

2) What is CAT4?

3) Supporting EAL students.

4) Intervention strategies – slide 6 of the PowerPoint

Defining Independent Learning

There are a number of different terms used to describe independent learning, the most common being ‘self-regulated learning’. All these different terms describe very similar themes and processes, including;
• Pupils having an understanding of their learning
• Pupils being motivated to take responsibility for their learning
• Pupils working with teachers to structure their learning environment.

There is a consensus in the literature that independent learning does not involve pupils merely working alone. Instead, the important role teachers can play in enabling and supporting independent learning is stressed. (Independent learning literature review.
DCFS 2008)

Independent learning is "not for learners to merely teach themselves, but that they are able to research, reflect and evaluate their own learning in order to identify and seek the support they need to progress." (From Good to Outstanding. Ofsted 2012: Independent learning).

Why is independent learning important in our teaching?

The impact of independent learning can be categorised in the following ways;
• Facilitates increased academic performance
• Produces increased motivation and confidence, and the ability for pupils to engage in lifelong learning
• Allowing pupils to become more aware of and better able to manage their limitations
• Enabling teachers to provide differentiated tasks for pupils
• Promoting social inclusion by countering alienation.

(Independent learning literature review. DCFS 2008)

How can teachers promote independent learning?

Using a range of strategies, including scaffolding
Providing pupils with opportunities to self-monitor
Offering models of behaviour
Developing a language for learning
Providing feedback and the opportunity to feed forward on homework.
(Independent learning literature review. DCFS 2008)

So, in order to develop the independence of your students, consider the following:
Are you sure they understand exactly what they are supposed to be learning?
Where is there a choice in how they are learning?
What choices and decisions are they being expected to make?
How are they being supported or prompted to make decisions? What decision-making
strategies are they developing?
How are they prompted and supported to reflect on their learning and choices?
What research skills do they have/need to learn?
What mechanisms of accountability are in place? – Deadlines, responsibility to others etc.
(From Good to Outstanding. Ofsted 2012: Independent learning).

Suggested Reading

• Independent learning literature review. DCFS 2008 https://www.gov.uk/government/

• fromgoodtooutstanding.com
Teachers TV - Independent Learners: Whole school

Why is pace and timing important in my teaching?

"If you want a lesson to engage learners effectively and maintain energy and focus, you need to pay some attention to managing pace. When you plan a lesson, it is helpful to consider the methods you will use to manage pace. A lesson that is conducted at the same pace throughout can risk students switching off and losing focus. Rushing through stages of the lesson can also lose learners and mean that you have to teach remedially later on because they missed key points."

(http://joannemilesconsulting.wordpress.com )

How can I facilitate good pace and timing in my lessons?

1. Create a Sense of Urgency
The true art of pacing lies in creating a sense of urgency and also not leaving your students in the dark. Think diligent pace but not frantic.
Using a timer on your desk or whiteboard can help create that "we are on the clock" feeling
-- while moving steadily ahead proving ample wait/think time along the way. If a teacher
question is asked of the whole group, don't expect an answer the first second or two, or
three. Count to five when asking those particularly challenging questions. Sometimes we
need to slow down in order to move the learning in the room forward.

2. Make Goals Clear
One way to avoid a clunky lesson pace is to make sure the learners

know exactly what they are learning and doing for the day. "Our learning objective today is to discover... . We will be doing this by... ." Keep students focused as you transition from one learning activity to another, announcing how much closer they are to accomplishing the day's goal.

3. Have Smooth Transitions

Good transitions demonstrate purposeful pacing and knowing next moves. Be thinking two steps ahead of the next activity, and begin setting up
for the next activity without finishing the last. While students are completing one piece of the learning, pass out any materials, set up the projector, or have instructional notes in place so that there's little to no dead time between one learning activity to the next.

4. Be Sure Materials Are Ready
Doing this will let you keep the flow going. Have handouts, markers, scissors, and construction paper all in place. Many teachers create

small supply containers of materials that include glue stick, scissors, highlighters, sticky notes, etc. and place it in the centre of each collection of desks or team table. Each group can elect a Supplies Captain who keeps inventory and rounds up contents at the end of class time.

Photocopying can be the bane of the teacher's day. Do you really need to have the quiz or the writing prompt on individual copy paper? Can it be displayed on the projector screen instead? Can there be just one copy on the group table for all to look at? (Less passing out and collecting saves time and keeps the focus on the task at hand.)

5. Present Instructions Visually

This helps keep that pace uninterrupted. For each set of
instructions, write them ahead of time on the board or have a slide in your PowerPoint or Prezi.

If you are relying on giving oral directions only, think of those students that have poor listening skills: "What are we doing again?" What do we do after this?" The energy and time you take to make the instructions visible will pay off.

6. Check for Understanding

Taking time to see where your students are during the lesson and adjusting accordingly means formative assessments play a key role in pacing.

Pair and share creates energy in the room following direct instruction. Keep it in short spurts, breaking up every five to seven minutes of new information with "turn and talk with your partner." Walk around the room and listen in to gauge understanding. These pauses for students to talk with each other can be as brief as 45 seconds. Also, use non-verbal quickies like thumbs up/thumbs down to see where students are and assess if more time or re-teaching is needed.

7. Choose Most Effective Type of Teaching

How will I get this new information to my
students? Teachers must ask themselves this question continually when lesson planning. Sometimes new information is so new that students need to first see a visual
representation and then require some information directly from their teacher to think about. Other times, it's best to set up a situation connecting to student schema and then group work to follow. Deciding the instructional mode (direct, student-centred, or facilitation) can be as important as choosing the content.


Strategies to improve transitions, time management, pace and structure in lessons:

What is planning?
Put simply - planning is the process of deciding what you will teach and how you will teach it. A plan can be long term (covering a term or year), medium term (covering a unit or half herm), weekly or daily (in which you set out in detail your plans for a lesson). This guide addresses short term planning.

Why plan?
Planning is essential for effective teaching - lessons will generally be most effective when you have given thought to the learning objectives and planned activities to meet those objectives. You also need to be able to demonstrate that you are differentiating and therefore giving all students the opportunity to make progress.

How do you plan?
Planning is personal - each person plans differently and you will develop the planning style that suits you best. But there are some general principles for effective lesson planning:

1. Select the Learning Objective first.

This will help ensure that all the activities in your lesson are relevant.

2. Plan differentiation

You should make sure your learning objective(s) are differentiated to take account of your prior assessment of individuals in your class

One way to do this is to use All-Most-Some.

Differentiation in planning should consider activity and difficulty.
3. Plan your activities

What is going to happen in the lesson? Select activities that will help students achieve the learning outcomes. Best practice is to ‘chunk’ so that the lesson has plenty of pace and students stay focused. Consider a variety of learning style and activities to engage all students. In a ‘typical’ lesson this will normally include some ‘shared learning’ (i.e. teacher led learning) group work and/or independent learning - but plan what will work best for your lesson and your students.
4. Plan plenaries

Essential to consolidate learning and measure progress. Effective questioning should also be planned and differentiated.
5. Plan how you will use additional adults

What role are additional adults, such as TAs going to have in your lesson? Be creative: could they work with the most able to add extra challenge? Or take the class while you work with a small group? Share your plan with additional adults before the lesson.
6. What will your plan look like?

For formal lesson observations, you need to plan using the school’s proforma.
7. Don’t be a slave to your plan:

Adapt it, or even abandon it altogether if it isn’t working - you need to respond to the needs of the students. Your plan is a guide - just because you have planned it doesn’t mean it has to happen; being able to adapt your lesson ‘on the go’ is an essential skill.
8. Evaluate each lesson
Useful for modifying subsequent lessons, recording and even for future years.
Planning Resources

1. A realistic guide to lesson planning by Phil Beadle, winner of the UK Secondary Teacher of the year and author of ‘How to Teach’ (ISBN: 9781845903930)

2. Strategies for effective lesson planning (American but still relevant)

3. Introducing pace and purpose – written for new teachers, but a practical reminder for all

4. Five minute lesson plan – for visual learners

5. Short video tutorial for the five-minute plan (DT lesson)
People learn in differnet ways. There are a number of differnet models and theories into how many 'learning styles' there are, but, as teachers, it is vital that we address the strengths and weaknesses of individual students if we are to give them every chance of achieving their potential.
There are many models of different learning styles in education. The most widely used is the VAK learning styles model, developed in 1987 by Neil Fleming, a high school and university teacher from New Zealand. Its letters stand for the three learning styles: visual, auditory, and kinaesthetic. Fleming later added a fourth, read/write, changing the acronym to VARK.

As a teacher, your best
option is to use a variety
of teaching techniques to
give all students the best
chance to succeed.
It is also a great way of
differentiating both
individual lessons and
a series of lessons.

Visual Learning Style

People with a visual learning style absorb information by seeing it in front of them and storing the images in their brains. They often enjoy reading, have good handwriting, are very detail-oriented, are organized, and have a keen awareness of colors and shapes.
They tend to struggle with verbal directions and are easily distracted by noise. They remember people’s faces better than their names, and they often need to maintain eye contact with a person to concentrate on a conversation.

Here are some tips for helping visual learners excel in the classroom:
• Write out directions.
• Use visuals when teaching lessons, such as pictures, charts, diagrams, maps, and outlines.
• Physically demonstrate tasks.
• Use visual aids such as flashcards and blocks.
• Show the visual patterns in language to teach spelling, vocabulary, grammar, and punctuation.
• Organize information using color codes.
• Talk with the child face-to-face and make eye contact whenever possible.
• When directions are given verbally, encourage the child to ask for clarification when she doesn’t understand fully.
• Encourage the child to write plenty of notes and organize information on paper and with objects.
• Provide a quiet, neat place to study, and minimize distractions as much as possible.

Auditory Learning Style

Verbal language is the prime form for exchanging information for those within the auditory learning style. They learn best by hearing and speaking. They often talk more than the average person, are very social, enjoy hearing stories and jokes, understand concepts by talking about them, and may excel in music or the performing arts.
Some auditory learners read slowly and have trouble writing, struggle to follow written directions, and have a tough time staying quiet for long stretches of time. They remember names and recognize tone of voice well, while not always remembering people’s faces. They often hum or sing, and they may whisper to themselves while reading.

Try these techniques when teaching auditory learners:
• Play word games and use rhymes to practice language.
• Have the child read aloud, even when alone, and follow the text with her finger.
• Allow the child to explain concepts verbally and give oral reports.
• Have the child memorize information by repeating it aloud.
• Assign projects and study times to be done in small and large groups.
• Read aloud often to young children.
• Provide a personal voice recorder the child can use to record notes or questions.
• Use beats, rhythms, and songs to reinforce educational information.

Read/Write Learning Style

The read/write learning style was added to Fleming’s model after the initial three. Read/write learners specifically learn best through the written word. They absorb information by reading books and handouts, taking lots of notes (sometimes word-for-word), and making lists. They prefer lectures, diagrams, pictures, charts, and scientific concepts to be explained using written language. They are often fast readers and skillful writers.
Similar to visual learners, read/write learners may struggle with verbal directions and are easily distracted by noise. Some may be quiet and struggle to detect body language and other social cues.

Here are some ways to help read/write learners succeed:
• Encourage the child to write plenty of notes, rewrite them in her own words, and study from them.
• Provide thorough, well-organized written material, and write key points in full sentences on the board during lectures.
• Assign plenty of writing exercises.
• Explain diagrams, graphs, or any mathematical data using language.
• Set up a quiet study area with as few distractions as possible.
• Provide a dictionary, thesaurus, and other resource material.
• Allow the child to answer multiple-choice questions.

Kinaesthetic Learning Style

People with the kinaesthetic learning style learn best by doing: moving around and handling physical objects. They like to explore the outdoors, are often very coordinated, may excel in athletics and performing arts, and usually express their feelings physically, such as with hugging and hitting. They prefer trying new skills for themselves rather than being given directions or shown a demonstration.
They may find it hard to sit still for long periods of time and struggle with reading and spelling. They are often considered “difficult” and misdiagnosed with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). In recent years, more educators have accepted that they simply learn differently and have urged educators to consider more kinaesthetic learning activities.

These teaching tips can help you get the most out of kinaesthetic learners:
• Give breaks frequently.
• Let the child try something first before you give detailed instructions.
• Provide plenty of hands-on learning tools, such as crayons, blocks, puzzles, maps, modelling clay, science experiments, an abacus, and a geoboard (a square board with pegs used to teach shapes and geometric concepts).
• Don’t limit the study space to the usual desk. Allow the child to study while moving around, lying on the floor, or slouching in a couch.
• Use the outdoors for learning opportunities.
• Teach educational concepts through games and projects.
• Assign presentations in which children demonstrate concepts or skills.
• Stop animation using diagrams or modelling clay.

So how do you know how your students will learn most effectively?

Use the CAT4 data!
This provides you with, not only the strengths and weaknesses of individuals, but also for the classes you teach. You can tailor your teaching towards a particular learning style if a whole class demonstrates one and differentiate teaching activities to account for individual needs.

Take a look....
Final thought....

Like the students, you will have a prefered learning/teaching style.

If you tend to teach in a certain way; perhaps relying on diagrams or verbal communication or talking a lot, then a number of students in your class will struggle to access the curriculum.

So, find out what you 'are':

And then look at ways of incorporating different teaching styles to address all student strengths.

High motivation and engagement in learning have consistently been linked to students staying in lessons and increasing levels of student success. Yet, keeping students interested in school and motivating them to succeed are challenges that present themselves year after year to even the most experienced teachers.

It is evident that student engagement in school drops considerably as students get older. By the time a lot of students reach Year 8 or 9, lack of interest in schoolwork becomes increasingly apparent in more and more students, and by the time GCSEs are being studied for, too many students are not sufficiently motivated to succeed in school.

"To a very large degree, students expect to learn if their teachers expect them to learn."

What is student motivation?

Student motivation and engagement is all about a student's willingness, need, desire and compulsion to participate in, and be successful in, the learning process.

Students who are motivated to engage in school select tasks at the border of their competencies, initiate action when given the opportunity, and exert intense effort and concentration in the implementation of learning tasks; they show generally positive emotions during ongoing action, including enthusiasm, optimism, curiosity, and interest.

Less motivated or disengaged students, on the other hand are passive, do not try hard, and give up easily in the face of challenges.

Student motivation can be divided into two categories:

Extrinsic motivation:
A student can be described as extrinsically motivated when he or she engages in learning purely for the sake of attaining a reward or for avoiding some punishment. School practices that seek to motivate students extrinsically include publicly recognizing students for academic achievements; giving out stickers, prizes, and other rewards; and taking away privileges, such as break or lunch, on the basis of students' academic performance and behaviour.

Intrinsic motivation:
A student can be described as intrinsically motivated when he or she is motivated from within: Intrinsically motivated students actively engage themselves in learning out of curiosity, interest, or enjoyment, or in order to achieve their own intellectual and personal goals.
A student who is intrinsically motivated will not need any type of reward or incentive to initiate or complete a task. This type of student is more likely to complete the chosen task and be excited by the challenging nature of an activity.

While any kind of motivation seems better than nothing,
motivated students fare better that
motivated students.

Extrinsically motivated students work for the reward and, research shows, gain less from the learning experience.

Intrinsically motivated students:

• Earn higher grades and achievement test scores, on average, than extrinsically motivated students,

• Are better personally adjusted to school,

• Employ "strategies that demand more effort and that enable them to process information more deeply,

• Are more likely to feel confident about their ability to learn new material,

• Use "more logical information-gathering and decision-making strategies",

• Are more likely to engage in "tasks that are moderately challenging, whereas extrinsically oriented students gravitate toward tasks that are low in degree of difficulty",

• Are more likely to persist with and complete assigned tasks,

• Retain information and concepts longer, and are less likely to need remedial courses and review,

• Are more likely to be lifelong learners, continuing to educate themselves outside the formal school setting long after external motivators such as grades and diplomas are removed.


• Use extrinsic rewards sparingly. If extrinsic motivators are to be used, they are most effective when rewards are closely related to the task accomplished. Also, rewards should only be given when they are deserved. Giving a prize for minimally successful work sends the message that minimum effort is acceptable, rewards then become meaningless.

• Ensure that classroom expectations for performance and behaviour are clear and consistent

• Make students feel welcome and supported. Take time to get to know students, talk to them individually, and express enjoyment in the interactions.

• Respond positively to student questions, and praise students verbally for work well done.

• Work to build quality relationships with students, especially those considered to be at-risk and without other positive adult interaction; this is a critical factor of student engagement that allows children to foster a sense of connection with school

• Break large tasks into a series of smaller goals. Doing so prevents students from becoming overwhelmed and discouraged by lengthy projects.

• Evaluate student work as soon as possible after project completion, and be sure that
feedback is clear and constructive.

• Evaluate students based on the task, not in comparison to other students.

Useful websites and research:





Numeracy Mission Statement

“We want every student at Hinchingbrooke School to reach a level of numeracy that allows them to follow the career or further educational pathway of their choice when they leave. The level of numeracy they obtain must enable them to realise their full potential in their personal and social life too.”

“We want it to be unacceptable for poor numeracy to hold back individuals at any point in their life both at school and after school.”

Numeracy skills and effectively numeracy is not just doing sums and being able to calculate amounts, it is a life skill. Numeracy is all about using and applying what your numeric skills to solve everyday problems whether it is at home, school or at your job.

In lessons and on your subject SOW:

• In each of your lessons where numeracy is used talk about what specific numeracy skills they are using, make them aware that they are using numeracy in your subject.

• Students need to know where they can and are applying their numeracy skills in order for them to be seen as a life skill and also how relevant it is to their everyday lives in the future and how it will make life easier and more manageable.

• Even though OFSTED want numeracy embedded in the school curriculum it does not have to be taught or used every single lesson, it must be a natural fit. If there are opportunities on the SOW to do numeracy this must be done, it is only if opportunities are missed that problems will arise.

• All department SOW needs to have where there are opportunities for numeracy and where numeracy is being used highlighted on their SOW (see codes at the end of section)

• To be successful at numeracy, numeracy skills or the numeracy aspect of any lesson needs to follow a process where applicable so that it becomes more relevant and more of a life skill.

The numeracy process...

Collect information

Process (Calculate)

Interpreting results

Obviously not every lesson where you are using numeracy may incorporate the entire numeracy process, you may just to be doing calculations or maybe just looking at collecting information (like from a graph). Please just highlight with your class which part of the numeracy process you are following.
Within those three categories numeracy skills are is split up into sections which can be found under some or all of the categories.

Proving progress over time:

Simple..... track progress.....

Step 1: Assess accurately (and frequently)

Step 2: Record attainment (both student and teacher)

Step 3: Identify students who are underachieving

Step 4: Introduce appropriate intervention

10 thoughts

ome techniques/strategies

are statements of what you are setting out to teach, expressed as if the students were going to learn it.

are statements of what you might assess. You may not end up assessing all of them, but they are statements of what a student will know or be able to do, if she or he has learned everything in the lesson.

Objectives can be easily differentiated using Bloom’s Taxonomy:

Knowledge: Basic recall of facts and data, times, dates, names, formulas, etc. - define distinguish indicate observe recall recognize relate state trace

Comprehension: To grasp the chief meaning of a concept - associate classify compare conclude describe edit estimate infer locate predict summarise

Application: Taking a concept under study and using it in a new or hypothetical situation - apply calculate discover employ illustrate implement modify order solve transfer

Analysis: Breaking something into component parts – looking at individual items for trends or evidence for generalisation, analyse classify compare deduce detect differentiate investigate transform

Synthesis - Presenting items or thoughts together in new ways, based on a presented criteria arrange - combine develop formulate synthesise
Evaluation Arguing for the validity or relative worth of a viewpoint or process, based on established criteria appraise argue assess contrast determine evaluate judge recommend regulate

Learning objectives and outcomes are the perfect opportunity to differentiate your lesson.

Using prior assessment data and your knowledge of the students in your class, you can set differentiate the objectives and the outcomes of your lessons.

A good starting point is:

All - All students in your class should achieve this

Most - The majority of students will achieve this objective

Some - Some of your higher abililty students will achieve this.
The development of literacy skills remains central to a young person's life chances as without them, full participation in the workplace and society as an adult will be a constant struggle. All teachers at Hinchingbrooke should view themselves as teachers of literacy, regardless of their subject specialism.

Ofsted (2013, July), The Framework for School Inspection: Part B: The focus of school inspections: Inspectors will consider the “extent which leaders and managers… promote pupils’ learning and progress in literacy” (p.19) and when evaluating the quality of teaching in the school, consider the extent to which… reading, writing, communication… are well taught’.

Literacy must be seen as part of the teaching and learning, not separate.

Ofsted (2013, p.5) believe literacy should not be limited to speaking and listening, reading and writing, but seen as broader skills where pupils are ready “to engage with challenging concepts, to make constructive connections between subjects and to learn from the thinking and experience of others”.

Quality Literacy must be embedded into all subjects. The list below is by no means exhaustive but is a starting point to that end:

Directorate literacy boards
Word Walls in every classroom
Key terminology identified on lesson plan and at the start of the lesson
Subject specific words from planner utilised
Ofsted requirements understood and accepted by all
Literacy objective planned for in every lesson
Quality communication committed to by all
Literacy marking codes used consistently by all

WWW – what did you do well on this piece of work?

This can be based on the
subject-specific skills
you are looking for the students to demonstrate e.g. in Business this would include:
You have applied your answers to the case study
You have explained the knock-on effects of your theory point
You have made a clear judgement and justified your decision
Time saver: these can be pre-typed into a template assessment sheet for you to use each time

Or, it can be based on the
topic-specific content
of the piece of assessed work e.g.
You have identified the reasons for poor cash flow
You have explained the benefits of budgeting
Time saver: you simply tick or highlight everything the student has achieved in the piece of work.

EBI - what could you have done better on this piece of work?

Time-saver: this can include the
same indicators
which you used for your WWW.

You then circle or tick one EBI which would allow the student to progress to the next level/grade.

Remember there also needs to be constructive feedback for the HAPs who may have achieved all the WWW indicators.

Other EBIs can be used for a range of assessments and classes e.g.:
Include 5 pieces of analysis per point
Complete all exam practice in timed conditions – 1 min per mark

Feed Forward - now do this

This can be to
have another go
at a specific question on the piece of assessed work - choose a Q which relates to their EBI.

Or, it can be a
theory task
based on something they were weak on e.g. key terms

Or, for the HAPs it can be a
higher level Q
from a different source:

Redo Q1(a)
Write definitions for the key terms in this topic
Complete this table to show the ads and disads of the methods of improving cash flow
Try the case study on P56
Try Q 3(a) of Jan 12 etc.

Time saver: identify a FF task for your LAPs, MAPs and HAPs

The purpose of marking is threefold…


Correcting and challenging

Guidance on the next steps/targets
here are two types of marking:

This is when a mark is given for a piece of work. Research (Dylan Wiliam and Robert Powell) shows there is no point giving comments with summative feedback as students will not take any notice! They are only interested in the mark.
So how do you ensure that students know WWW (What Went Well) and How to Improve further (EBI – Even Better If)?

This is when you give comments on a piece of work which guide the students on how to improve further. Feedback is NOT formative if the students do not/are not given the opportunity to act on the advice given. Research suggests that you may as well not mark a piece of work if students do not have an opportunity to improve immediately.
We need consistency at Hinchingbrooke so we all, from this point on, need to use the following:
WWW – At least 2 comments on What Went Well
EBI – At least 1 comment on Even Better If
Feedforward – Students are given the time to act on the EBIs given when the work is returned (either redoing a piece of work or a section of it).

Marking obviously needs to conducted according to the school's marking policy.
What is differentiation?

“The process by which teachers provide opportunities for learners to achieve their potential, working at their own pace through a variety of relevant learning activities.”

Convery and Coyle (1993)

Ten ideas for differentiation

Be aware of the different strengths and weaknesses of students.
Be aware of the different ways your students learn and plan for this
Consider the environment – make sure it is a supportive, non-threatening atmosphere.
Give individual feedback/support to individuals (be clear about when and how this will happen).
Make aims and objectives clear from the start.
Make sure all activities are clearly explained – students should understand WHAT you want them to do and WHY
Students should be given manageable tasks & clear, short term goals in order that they can be motivated by success.
Students should be made aware that not everyone works at the same pace.
No one should be allowed to dominate (use direct questioning, elected spokesperson, limited answers, mini- whiteboards…)
Establish the types of activities – Paired, group, peer assessment…

Find out more:

Have a look at:

And all departments have a book:

If you don’t know where you’re starting from and where you’re going, you’re never going to get to where you need to be.

That, in a sentence, is the basis of Assessment for Learning (AfL). AfL enables teachers and learners to find out about the learning that has already taken place, in order to inform the learning to come.
Some key recommendations of AfL

• Share the learning objective Pupils, as well as teachers, thereby understand the aim of the lesson and can judge whether they have met the objective through achieving the outcome.

• Ask questions effectively For example, many teachers would leave less than one second for pupils to answer a question, and elicit answers from a small minority. With AfL, it was recognised that it is important to give pupils time to think about a question and provide opportunities for everyone to respond. The type of question asked is also important; there is a place for both closed and open questions, but thought should be given to which type is most appropriate for the context.

• Mark work, including homework, formatively When given grades or marks, pupils typically look only at these and ignore suggestions for improvement. With AfL, teachers learnt to concentrate on giving only comments, on which pupils were expected to take action to improve the work.

• Pupils assess one another Pupil groups can mark each other’s work, and thereby learn to think about the aim of a piece of work and to understand the criteria of quality.

• Involve pupils in their tests By involving pupils in setting test questions, in inventing mark schemes, and in marking one another’s answers, teachers helped pupils to achieve a view that is based more on understanding the work that has been covered than on the pressure to succeed.

Assessment Reform Group


Initial Teacher Education on AfL


Learning styles
Marking &
feed forward
Data tracking
Full transcript