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Jasmina Sinanovic

on 19 September 2017

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Transcript of Culture

Definition: "the language, values, beliefs, traditions, and customs people share and learn."
in groups - groups with which we identify
out groups - groups we view as different
co-culture = smaller culture within a larger culture, perception of membership in a group that is part of an encompassing culture
Co-cultures in the USA

sexual orientation
geographic region
physical disability
economic status
Intercultural Communication = the process that occurs when members of two or more cultures or co-cultures exchange messages in a manner that is influenced by their different cultural perceptions and symbol systems, both verbal and non verbal
we don't talk about having or not having intercultural communication - we talk about
degrees of cultural significance

(sometimes culture makes a lot of impact on communication and sometimes not so much)

Cultural values and norms - sometimes subtle values and norms influence how we communicate:

1. High Vs Low Context
2. Individualism vs Collectivism
3. Power Distance
4. Uncertainty Avoidance
5. Achievement vs Nurturing
To develop intercultural competence:
motivation and attitude
tolerance for ambiguity
open-mindedness (avoid ethnocentrism)
knowledge and skill
patience and perseverance
ethnocentrism - an attitude that one's own culture is superior to others. (thinking everyone who is not part of one's group is strange, wrong or even inferiors - our way is the right way).
High vs Low Context
Germany, Scandinavia, most Eng. Speaking Countries
Most info - explicit verbal messages, less focus on situational context
Self Expression is Valued
Clear, eloquent speech is praised. Verbal fluency is admired.

South Europe, Middle East, Asia, Latin America
Information through contextual cues, less through verbal
Relational harmony is valued. Avoiding to say no
Talking around the point. Ambiguity and use of silence valued.
Individualism vs Collectivism
USA, Canada, UK
self is separate, unique, independent
Individual expected to take care of oneself
flexible group membership
reward for individual achievement
value of autonomy, youth, equality
produces superstars
Pakistan, Indonesia, Ecuador
people belong to extended families, we orientation
person should take care of extended family before self
emphasis on belonging to a very few permanent in-groups
reward for contribution to group goals, group decisions are valued, credit is shared
high value on duty, order, tradition, age, group security, status and hierarchy
Power Distance
Low Power Distance
U.S., Canada, Austria, Denmark, Israel, New Zealand
belief in equality
more questioning of authority or adults
employees asked for input
High Power Distance
Korea, Mexico, Venezuela, India, Singapore, Philippines
groups or institutions can control people
elders get respect, children not to question parents, teachers
employees do as told and do not question supervisors
Uncertainty Avoidance - degree to which members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous situations and how much they try to avoid them.
Low Uncertainty Avoidance
Singapore, GB, Denmark, Sweden, Hong Kong, USA
Ok with change
appreciate novelty
different ideas are welcome
High Uncertainty Avoidance
Belgium, Greece, Japan, Portugal
ambiguous situations discomforting
deviant ideas and people are considered dangerous
Achievement vs Nurturing
outperforming others
value on material success
focus on task at hand
highly capable empowered to speak
support of relationships is important
less capable feel valued and can speak
the extent to which members of the society accept unequal distribution of power
culture shock
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